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6.5: Key Terms

  • Page ID
    236478
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    balance of power
    a situation in which competing nations have approximately equal military power
    black legend
    the myth, mostly promoted by English writers, that the Spanish treated Native Americans far more harshly than other European colonizers
    bourgeoisie
    the social class whose members owned the means of production and whose main goal was the preservation of capital
    British Raj
    the period from 1858 to 1947 when the British government directly ruled India through the Viceroy of India
    Canton system
    a system that allowed Europeans to trade with China only if they worked through the Chinese guilds that enjoyed monopoly rights to the tea and silk trades
    capitalism
    an economic system in which private individuals and companies own the means of production, and free (unregulated) markets set the value of most goods and services based on supply and demand
    charter
    an official authorization to conduct a major economic activity such as the creation of a colony
    cultural accommodation
    the practice of integrating a culture into the dominant society without forcing it to fully integrate and adopt all the dominant culture’s components
    economic imperialism
    the practice of dominating a foreign country economically
    indirect rule
    a system in which colonial powers cooperated with Indigenous elites and allowed local leaders to exercise some authority
    Industrial Revolution
    the period during which societies transitioned away from a focus on agriculture and handicraft production to manufacturing, primarily with machines
    laissez-faire economics
    the theory that market forces alone should drive the economy and that governments should refrain from direct intervention in or moderation of the economic system
    Luddites
    British workers in the early nineteenth century who resisted industrialization
    Marxism
    the idea, espoused by Karl Marx, that recognizing class struggle is central to understanding societies
    mechanization
    the use of machines to replace the labor of animals and humans
    proletariat
    the landless working class
    sepoys
    Indian soldiers who served the British in India
    socialism
    an economic system in which the public owns the means of production

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