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Humanities Libertexts

12.1: Chronology

  • Page ID
    1247
  • 962 CE Otto I crowned Holy Roman Emperor

    987 CE Hugh Capet elected king of France

    c. 1000 – 1100 CE Emergence of Western European feudalism

    1031 CE Fall of the Cordoba Caliphate

    1049 CE Pope Leo IX begins papal efforts at Church reform

    1054 CE Schism between the pope and the patriarch of Constantinople

    1066 CE Norman Conquest of England

    1071 CE Battle of Manzikert annihilates Byzantine field army

    1077 CE Henry IV repents to Pope Gregory VII at Canossa

    1085 CE Fall of Muslim Toledo to the Christian kingdom of Leon-Castile

    1088 – 1231 CE Foundation of Universities of Bologna, Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge

    1091 CE Norman conquest of Muslim Sicily complete

    1095 CE Council of Clermont, calling of the First Crusade

    1099 CE Fall of Jerusalem to Christian Crusaders, establishment of Crusader States

    1100 – 1135 CE King Henry I rules England

    1118 – 1143 CE Emperor John II rules the Byzantine Empire

    1122 CE Concordat of Worms

    1125 – 1152 CE Raymond is archbishop of Toledo, begins sponsoring the translation of Muslim and Greek philosophy from Arabic into Latin

    1143 – 1180 CE Emperor Manuel Komnenos rules the Byzantine Empire

    1154 – 1189 CE King Henry II rules England

    1176 CE Frederick Barbarossa defeated by Lombard League at the Battle of Legnano; Manuel Komnenos defeated by Saljuq Turks at the Battle of Myriokephalon

    1187 CE Kingdom of Jerusalem defeated by Saladin at the Battle of Hattin, fall of Jerusalem, Pope Gregory VIII issues Audita tremendi, calling the Third Crusade

    1189 – 1192 CE The Third Crusade, a rump (remnant of a larger government) Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem is re-established, but Jerusalem remains in Muslim hands

    1203 – 1226 CE France’s Capetian kings extend the control of lands directly ruled by the crown

    1204 CE Crusaders sack Constantinople, break-up of the Byzantine Empire

    1212 CE Almohad Caliphate defeated by Spanish Christian kingdoms at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

    1215 CE Magna Carta

    1215 – 1250 CE Frederick II is Holy Roman Emperor

    1224 – 1274 CE Life of St. Thomas Aquinas

    1229 CE A treaty between Frederick II and Egyptian sultan al-Kamil returns Jerusalem to Christian rule

    1240 CE Mongol Conquest of Kievan Rus

    1241 CE Mongol invasion of Hungary

    1244 CE Jerusalem falls to Ayyubid Egypt

    1248 – 1254 CE The Seventh Crusade, France’s King Louis IX defeated by Egypt, Egyptian Mamluk coup d’état

    1250 – 1273 CE There is no Holy Roman Emperor

    1261 CE Restoration of the Byzantine Empire

    1291 CE Last Crusader territory in the Levant falls to Mamluk Egypt

    c. 1300 CE Genoese sailors begin exploring the Atlantic Ocean

    early 1300s CE Genoese sailors are visiting the Canary Islands

    1309 CE Beginning of Avignon papacy

    1314 – 1326 CE Civil war in the Holy Roman Empire

    1315 – 1322 CE The Great Famine

    1324 CE Mansa Musa’s hajj

    1331 CE Nearly all Byzantine territory in Asia Minor has fallen to the Ottoman Turks

    1337 CE The Hundred Years’ War begins

    c. 1350 CE Beginning of Italian Renaissance and Humanism

    1347 – 1351 CE The Black Death, nearly a third of Europe’s population dies

    1356 CE The Holy Roman Empire becomes an elected monarchy

    1358 CE French peasant revolt

    1378 CE Beginning of Great Schism

    1385 CE Lithuania united with Poland, Lithuanian monarch converts to Christianity

    1396 CE Ottoman Turks conquer Bulgaria

    1397 CE Union of Kalmar unites Sweden, Denmark, and Norway under a single crown

    c. 1400 – 1500 CE Renaissance Humanism spreads throughout Europe

    1404 CE Castilian effort to conquer the Canaries begins

    1415 – 1417 CE Council of Constance resolves the Great Schism

    1440 CE Lorenzo Valla shows the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery

    mid 1400s CE Iberians are settling the Azores, a plantation economy worked by African slaves begins to flourish in the Canaries and Azores

    1453 CE Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, final fall of the Byzantine Empire; End of Hundred Years’ War and English attempts to conquer France

    1454 CE Treaty of Lodi brings nearly a half century of peace to Italy

    1455 – 1485 CE Wars of the Roses in England

    1459 CE Final Ottoman conquest of Serbia

    1479 CE Marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon creates a united Spanish monarchy

    1492 CE King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella complete the Reconquista with the conquest of Granada, Christopher Columbus, sailing for the Spanish crown, makes landfall in the Western Hemisphere

    1494 CE France invades Italy

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