1. How did the Germanic peoples of Western Europe relate to the former Roman territories over which they had taken control?
2. Which of Justinian’s policies had the longest-lasting effects?
3. What crises did the Byzantine Empire face during the reign of Heraclius?
4. What was a way that the Byzantine state reorganized itself to face the challenges of seventhand eighth-century invasions?
5. Why did the Iconoclast emperors believe that using images in worship was wrong?
6. How did the Church provide a sense of legitimacy to the kings of the Franks?
7. How did the majority of people in Europe and the Byzantine Empire live in the Early Middle Ages (i.e., c. 500 to 1000 C.E.)?
8. How did East Francia and England respond to Viking attacks?