The year 1660 marks a break between two waves of English colonization. Prior to 1640, colonies were created in New England, Virginia, and Maryland. For the most part, the colonies established during this period were created by charters held indirectly from the Crown. Those that appeared after 1660 were mainly proprietary, given as grants to the friends of Charles II, who was “restored” to the throne in 1660. The late seventeenth century witnessed an attempt by the English monarchy to tighten the reins over their American colonies, as new Acts of Trade and Navigation were passed by Parliament and the Dominion of New England created. When James II was overthrown in 1688, a series of revolts in the colonies brought an end to such institutions as the Dominion of New England. By the end of the century, however, many colonies had lost their charters and became royal colonies under the direct control of the Crown. In 1735, the last English colony, Georgia, was established as a buffer colony between the American colonies and Spanish Florida.