John Adams’s exit from the presidency was not without controversy, particularly in the judiciary. However, his appointment of Chief Justice John Marshall would prove to be significant for the United States for decades to come. Jefferson’s first term was decidedly positive, perhaps the most successful first term of any president, as he reduced the debt and doubled the size of the nation. His second term was just as disastrous as his first was successful, leaving a diplomatic tangle for Madison to navigate, and leading to the War of 1812.
These events in the early nineteenth century led the Republicans to realize that not all Federalist policies were bad; some were even necessary for the welfare of the nation as a whole. Madison was able to blend the best of the Federalist ideas, such as a national bank, with the best of the Republicans, as in limiting government so that it did not become a burden to the people. His skills led the nation towards the Era of Good Feelings. The War of 1812 brought the United States new respect as a nation and helped to create a new economy for the country while triggering the end of the old Federalist Party. Along with these changes, the Market Revolution’s impact on manufacturing in the United States altered the American lifestyle in the North and widened the social gap between the North and South.