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Humanities Libertexts

2.1: Chronology

  • Page ID
    1177
  • Ancient Mesopotamia

    c. 10,000 BCE Beginnings of the Agricultural Revolution

    c. 3500 BCE Appearance of Sumerian city-states in lower Mesopotamia

    c. 3200 BCE Early use of cuneiform

    c. 2900 BCE Production of bronze

    2334 – 2100 BCE Akkadian Empire

    c. 2000 BCE Gilgamesh first recorded in cuneiform

    1792 – 1595 BCE Babylonian Empire

    1792 – 1750 BCE Reign of Hammurabi

    900 – 612 BCE Assyrian Empire

    626 – 539 BCE New Babylonian Empire

    605 – 562 BCE Reign of Nebechadnezzar

    Ancient Israel

    c. 1300 – 1200 BCE Israelites leave Egypt (following Moses)

    c. 1050 – 1010 BCE Israelites establish a kingdom

    c. 1000 – 970 BCE Reign of King David

    c. 979 – 930 BCE Reign of King Solomon

    931 BCE Israel divides into two kingdoms

    586 – 539 BCE Babylonian captivity of Israelites

    Northeast Africa (Egypt and Nubia)

    c. 7000 BCE Beginnings of Agricultural Revolution in Northeast Africa

    c. 6000 – 3500 BCE Desiccation of the Sahara Desert pushed people towards Nile River Valley

    c. 4000 BCE Towns and villages grew along the Nile River

    c. 3100 BCE Unification of Egypt

    3100 – 2600 BCE Egyptian Archaic Period

    2660 – 2160 BCE Egyptian Old Kingdom

    2400 – 1450 BCE The Kingdom of Kerma

    2040 – 1640 BCE Egyptian Middle Kingdom

    1640 – 1570 BCE Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period (Egypt under Hyksos Rule)

    1530 – 1070 BCE Egyptian New Kingdom

    1350 – 1325 BCE Amarna Period (under Pharaoh Akhenaten)

    1040 – 332 BCE Egyptian Late Period

    750 – 656 BCE The Kingdom of Kush ruled Egypt, creating the “Ethiopian Dynasty”

    750 – 593 BCE Kingdom of Kush (with capital at Napata)

    656 – 639 BCE Assyrians occupied Egypt

    593 BCE Egyptian army sacked Napata, the capital of Kush

    593 BCE The Kingdom of Kerma moved its capital to Meroe

    525 BCE Persian conquest of Egypt

    323 BCE Alexander the Great conquered Egypt/Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt

    30 BCE Roman conquest of Egypt

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