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5.4: What Are the Different Citations?

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    47382
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    MLA STYLE

    This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at the bottom.

    Contributors: Kristen Seas, Allen Brizee.

    SUMMARY:

    Welcome to the OWL Workshop on MLA Style. This workshop will introduce you to the Modern Language Association (MLA) Style for writing and formatting research papers. To get the most out of this workshop, you should begin with the introductory material below, which covers what MLA Style is, why it is used, and who should apply this style to their work. Then you are invited to browse through the OWL's various handouts on different aspects of MLA Formatting and Citations standards, both as sources appear in-text and in the final reference page.

    MLA OVERVIEW AND WORKSHOP

    Welcome to the OWL Workshop on MLA Style. This workshop will introduce you to the Modern Language Association (MLA) Style for writing and formatting research papers. To get the most out of this workshop, you should begin with the introductory material below, which covers what MLA Style is, why it is used, and who should apply this style to their work. Then you are invited to browse through the OWL's various handouts on different aspects of MLA Formatting and Citations standards, both as sources appear in-text and in the final reference page.

    Note: This workshop should answer most of your basic questions about using MLA Style. However, if you are writing a complex document such as a thesis or lengthy manuscript, or if you have detailed questions, you should consult the MLA Handbook (8th Edition), which you can usually find at your local library or in many bookstores.

    The MLA also has a website called the MLA Style Center that allows you to order the handbook online. The site also includes resources for students and teachers as well as answers to frequently asked questions on basic details of MLA Style. Purdue's OWL also has a list of Additional Resources covering MLA Style as well.

    WHAT IS MLA STYLE?

    MLA Style establishes standards of written communication concerning:

    • formatting and page layout
    • stylistic technicalities (e.g. abbreviations, footnotes, quotations)
    • citing sources
    • and preparing a manuscript for publication in certain disciplines.

    WHY USE MLA?

    Using MLA Style properly makes it easier for readers to navigate and comprehend a text by providing familiar cues when referring to sources and borrowed information. Editors and instructors also encourage everyone to use the same format so there is a consistency of style within a given field. Abiding by MLA's standards as a writer will allow you to:

    • Provide your readers with cues they can use to follow your ideas more efficiently and to locate information of interest to them
    • Allow readers to focus more on your ideas by not distracting them with unfamiliar or complicated formatting
    • Establish your credibility or ethos in the field by demonstrating an awareness of your audience and their needs as fellow researchers (particularly concerning the citing of references)

    WHO SHOULD USE MLA?

    MLA Style is typically reserved for writers and students preparing manuscripts in various humanities disciplines such as:

    • English Studies - Language and Literature
    • Foreign Language and Literatures
    • Literary Criticism
    • Comparative Literature
    • Cultural Studies

    MLA FORMATTING AND NOTATION STYLE

    You should start by becoming familiar with the general formatting requirements of MLA Style, as well as the different standards for notation that MLA writers are expected to use. Because MLA is different than other writing styles, such as APA, you should pay attention to every detail of the Style, from general paper layout to abbreviations. The following pages will introduce you to some of these basic requirements of MLA Style to get you started in the right direction.

    General Format

    • Covers the basic requirements of page layout for a typical
      MLA manuscript
    • Includes general guidelines to apply through the document and specific formatting details for the first page of the paper
    • Also provides an image of the sample first page of an essay written in MLA Style

    Footnotes and Endnotes

    • Explains the necessity for using notes and how to use them effectively in an MLA paper
    • Covers different reasons for why you may use a footnote or endnote to supplement the main body of your paper
    • Describes how to number and format the notes to be consistent with MLA guidelines

    Formatting Quotations

    • Describes how to format quotations borrowed from secondary sources
    • Addresses both short quotations worked into the writer's own sentences and long quotations that are blocked off as distinct material
    • Also explains how to omit or add in words properly to clarify the meaning of a quotation

    Abbreviations

    • Covers MLA standards for abbreviating words commonly used in academic prose
    • Describes the different categories of abbreviations: time, locations, academic references, publishers
    • Includes guidelines for abbreviating information in citations in a Works Cited page

    MLA CITATIONS AND WORKS CITED PAGE

    As with any publishing style, the most difficult aspect of MLA Style to master are the requirements for citing secondary sources accurately. The pages included here walk you through the details of incorporating citations into the text of your paper as well as how to compose a work cited page of references at the end of your paper. Read these guidelines carefully. It is important that you refer to your sources according to MLA Style so your readers can quickly follow the citations to the reference page and then, from there, locate any sources that might be of interest to them. They will expect this information to be presented in a particular style, and any deviations from that style could result in confusing your readers about where you obtained your information.

    How to Document Sources in MLA Style: An Overview

    • Covers the process for developing Works Cited lists and in-text citations advocated in MLA (8th ed.)
    • Explains "containers," a concept new to the eighth edition, including how to use them to develop citations

    In-Text Citations: The Basics

    • Addresses the formatting requirements of using the MLA Style for citing secondary sources within the text of your essay
    • Offers a few basic rules for using parenthetical citations, including when not to use such citations
    • Includes examples of in-text citations
    • Explains the author-page formatting of the parenthetical citation and how that applies to different types of sources
    • Provides examples of in-text citations based on the kind of source being cited, such as a literary work, an anonymous work, and work with multiple authors
    • Also describes how to cite a source indirectly referenced in another source

    Works Cited Page: Basic Format

    • Guides you through the general rules that apply to any works cited page using MLA Style, from where the page appears and how to list the works
    • Walks you through how to construct a reference entry for different text starting with a focus on author
    • Serves as a primer on formatting that will be followed in all of the following handouts on creating MLA works cited entries
    • Includes example Works Cited Page

    Works Cited Page: Books

    • Builds from the basic format page with a focus on how to create citations for types of commonly referenced book sources
    • Includes guidelines and examples for a variety of books depending on the number of authors, whether the work is a piece is a larger work, or if the book itself is part of a multivolume collection

    Works Cited Page: Other Common Sources

    • Provides guidelines on how to reference other sources you may encounter during research that are considered books or non-periodical works
    • Includes works that you might likely use but have different publication information, such as a government document, pamphlet, and dissertations

    Works Cited Page: Periodicals

    • Covers the guidelines for developing a citation entry for works found in periodicals, typically articles in circulating publications that have different dates and volume/issue numbers
    • Lists types of entries depending on the kind of journal (e.g. one paginated by volume), if the source is a magazine v. a newspaper, or the kind of article the source is (e.g. a letter to the editor)

    Works Cited Page: Electronic Sources

    • Walks through the basic requirements and unique qualifications for constructing references for different types of electronic sources
    • Covers more standard sources from online periodicals and scholarly databases, to less conventional sources like emails and video recordings found online
    • Includes OWL suggestions on how to cite weblog entries and comments posted to blogs (NOTE: consult your instructor to find out if these are acceptable research sources to use)

    Works Cited Page: Other Non-Print Sources

    • Applies the basic MLA citation rules to non-print sources you may use in your research, such as interviews and images
    • Provides directions and examples of how to cite video and sound recordings, as well as three-dimensional works like sculptures

    MLA Eighth Edition: What's New and Different

    • Explains major changes from MLA seventh edition (2009) to eighth edition (2016)

    Please Note: If you know exactly what you're looking for concerning MLA, you can use the OWL Navigation to the left by looking under "Research and Citation" and clicking on "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." You may also use the search box at the top of the navigation bar to find resources.

    APA STYLE

    Contributors: Kristen Seas, Allen Brizee.

    SUMMARY:

    This workshop provides an overview of the APA (American Psychological Association) style and where to find help with different APA resources. It provides an annotated list of links to all of our APA materials and an APA overview. It is an excellent place to start to learn about APA format.

    APA STYLE WORKSHOP

    Welcome to the OWL Workshop on APA Style! This workshop will introduce you to important aspects of using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style to write and format research papers. You should begin with the introductory material, which covers what APA Style is, why it is used, and who should apply it to their work. Then you are invited to work through the OWL's handouts on APA Formatting and Writing Style, as well as APA Citations and Reference Lists.

    NOTE: This workshop should answer most of your basic questions about using APA Style. However, if you are writing a complex document such as a thesis or lengthy manuscript, or if you have detailed questions, you should consult The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition), which you can usually find at your local library or in many bookstores.

    The APA also has a website that allows you to order the book online and read some of their frequently asked questions about APA style. Purdue's OWL also has a list of Additional Resources covering APA style that you can consult.

    WHAT IS APA STYLE?

    APA Style establishes standards of written communication concerning:

    • the organization of content
    • writing style
    • citing references
    • and how to prepare a manuscript for publication in certain disciplines.

    WHY USE APA?

    Aside from simplifying the work of editors by having everyone use the same format for a given publication, using APA Style makes it easier for readers to understand a text by providing a familiar structure they can follow. Abiding by APA's standards as a writer will allow you to:

    • Provide readers with cues they can use to follow your ideas more efficiently and to locate information of interest to them
    • Allow readers to focus more on your ideas by not distracting them with unfamiliar formatting
    • Establish your credibility or ethos in the field by demonstrating an awareness of your audience and their needs as fellow researchers

    WHO SHOULD USE APA?

    APA Style describes rules for the preparation of manuscripts for writers and students in:

    • Social Sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, Economics, and Criminology
    • Business
    • Nursing

    Before you adopt this style for your paper, you should check to see what citation style your discipline uses in its journals and for student research. If APA Style is appropriate for your writing project, then use this workshop to learn more about APA and how to follow its rules correctly in your own work.

    APA FORMATTING AND WRITING STYLE

    You should start by becoming familiar with the general formatting requirements of APA Style, as well as the different standards for writing that are expected among APA writers. Because APA is different than other writing styles, you should pay attention to everything from general paper layout to word choice. The following pages will introduce you to some of these basic requirements of APA Style to get you started in the right direction.

    General APA Format

    • Covers the basic page layout for a typical APA manuscript, including everything from margin widths to the use of headings and visuals
    • Includes a general list of the basic components of an APA paper: title page, abstract, and reference page

    Types of APA Papers

    • Describes the two most common types of APA papers: the literature review and the experimental report
    • Outlines what sections must be included in each type of paper, from introductions to a methods section

    APA Stylistics: Basics

    • Describes three basic areas of stylistic concerns when writing in an APA field: point of view, clarity/conciseness, and word choice
    • Explains how poetic language and devices should be avoided in APA reviews and reports
    • Suggestions and examples are given for each stylistic issue

    APA Stylistics: Things to Avoid

    • Identifies the risk of bias in language concerning gender, race, disability, and sexuality when writing up research in APA fields
    • Provides links to APA's official guidelines on avoiding bias
    • Offers suggestions on finding alternatives to gendered pronouns and using different descriptors when identifying people in your research

    APA CITATIONS AND REFERENCE LIST

    Perhaps the trickiest part of mastering APA Style is understanding the requirements for citing and listing secondary sources accurately. The following pages walk you through the details of writing citations and developing a reference page at the end of your paper. Read these guidelines carefully! It is important that you refer to your sources according to APA Style so your readers can quickly follow the citations to the reference page and then, from there, locate any sources that might be of interest to them. They will expect this information to be presented in a particular style, and any deviations from that style could result in confusing your readers about where you obtained your information.

    In-Text Citations: The Basics

    • Addresses the basic formatting requirements of using the APA Style for citing secondary sources within the text of your essay
    • Provides guidance on how to incorporate different kinds of references to borrowed material, from short quotes to summaries or paraphrases

    In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    • Focuses on various details about referring to the authors of your sources within your essay, which can be difficult to do efficiently if the source has more than one author or has an unclear author (e.g. an organization)
    • Describes how to cite indirect quotes, electronic sources, and/or sources without page numbers

    Footnotes and Endnotes

    • Recommends using footnotes or endnotes to avoid long explanations in the text
    • Covers two basic kinds of notes: bibliographic and digressive

    Reference List: Basic Rules

    • Guides you through the general rules that apply to any reference list developed using APA Style
    • Covers everything from where the reference list appears to the capitalization of words in the titles of sources
    • Serves as a primer on formatting that will be followed in all of the following handouts on creating APA reference entries

    Reference List: Author/Authors

    • Walks you through how to construct a reference entry for different text starting with a focus on author
    • Notes how the references are different depending on the number of authors or if there are multiple works by the same author

    Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

    • Builds from the previous handout by looking specifically at how to refer accurately to a periodical source
    • Lists types of entries depending on the kind of journal (e.g. one paginated by volume), if the source is a magazine v. a newspaper, or the kind of article the source is (e.g. a letter to the editor)

    Reference List: Books

    • Builds from the author handout by describing how to properly refer to book-length sources
    • Addresses both the basic format as well as requirements for those unique book sources that require you to note specific details, such as whether it is a translation or part of a multivolume work

    Reference List: Other Print Sources

    • Offers a short list of other less common print sources you might be citing in your manuscript and how to construct references for them
    • Covers examples such as citing a source that is cited in another, or citing a government document

    Reference List: Electronic Sources

    • Walks through the requirements and unique qualifications (see the Notes throughout the page) for constructing references for electronic sources
    • Covers sources from online periodicals and scholarly databases, to emails.

    Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

    • Focuses primarily on how to reference video and audio texts that are used as sources, from movie clips to sound recordings
    • Notes that personal communication (e.g. an interview or conversation) is not to be included in the reference list.

    Owl at Purdue -- Copyright ©1995-2017 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University.

    IEEE STYLE

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a widely accepted format for writing research papers,[citation needed] commonly used in technical fields, particularly in computer science. IEEE style is based on the Chicago Style.[1] In the IEEE style, citations are numbered, but citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.



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    This page titled 5.4: What Are the Different Citations? is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Chelsea Milbourne, Anne Regan, Morgan Livingston, & Sadie Johann.

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