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17.3: Semicolons and Colons

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    A semicolon is can be used in three different types of sentence structures.

    • To join two independent clauses.
      Example: Several environmental organizations recognized the treaty; few endorsed it.
    • To join two independent clauses when a conjunctive adverb is used.
      Example: Several environmental organizations recognized the treaty; however, few endorsed it.
    • To separate items in a list if the items in the list already necessitate a comma.
      Example: She has a son, Mike Nach, of Arizona; a daughter, Emily Rosa, of Colorado; and a sister, Sara Evans, of Minnesota


    Colons are used to draw attention to certain words. They are used after an independent clause to direct attention to a list, appositive, or quotation. They are used between independent clauses when the second clause summarizes or emphasizes the first clause or after the greeting in a formal letter.

    Case Example Note
    • I have three sisters: Catherine, Sarah, and Mary.
    • The sandwich requires several ingredients: bread, butter, cheese, ham, and tomatoes.
    Appositive My mom just won an award: Mom of the Year.
    Answers the question There was only one possible explanation: The train had never arrived.
    Quotation Homer Simpson is famous for his grunted expression: "Doh!"
    Between independent clauses Life is like a box of chocolates: you never know what you're going to get.
    Introduction of a definition Hypernym of a word: a word having a wider meaning than the given one. Is a special case of appositive.
    After business salutation Dear Sir or Madam:
    In a dialogue
    • Patient: Doctor, I feel like a pair of curtains.
    • Doctor: Pull yourself together!
    Separation of title from subtitle Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope
    Separation of the chapter and the verse numbers of religious scriptures
    • John 3:14–16 (or John III:14–16)
    • The Qur'an, Sura 5:18
    Separation within time of the day
    • The concert finished at 23:45.
    • This file was last modified today at 11:15a.m.
    Standard time vs military time

    17.3: Semicolons and Colons is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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