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11.2: Suffixes

  • Page ID
    36842
  • Suffixes

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    A suffix is a word part added to the end of a word to create a new meaning and a new part of speech. Study the suffix rules in the following boxes.

    Rules for Suffixes

    Rule 1

    When adding the suffixes -ness and -ly to a word, the spelling of the word does not change.

    Examples:

    dark + ness = darkness

    scholar + ly = scholarly

    Exceptions to Rule 1

    When the word ends in y, change the y to i before adding -ness and -ly.

    Examples:

    ready + ly = readily

    happy + ness = happiness

    Rule 2

    When the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the silent "e" in the root word.

    Examples:

    care + ing = caring

    use + able = usable

    Exceptions to Rule 2

    When the word ends in -ce or -ge, keep the silent e if the suffix begins with a or o.

    Examples:

    replace + able = replaceable

    courage + ous = courageous

    Rule 3

    When the suffix begins with a consonant, keep the silent e in the original word.

    Examples:

    care + ful = careful

    care + less = careless

    Examples:

    true + ly = truly

    argue + ment = argument

    Rule 4

    When the word ends in a consonant + y, change the y to i before any suffix not beginning with i.

    Examples:

    sunny + er = sunnier

    hurry + ing = hurrying

    Rule 5

    When the suffix begins with a vowel, double the final consonant only if

    (1) the word has only one syllable or is accented on the last syllable,

    - and -

    (2) the word ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant.

    Examples:

    tan + ing = tanning (one syllable word)

    regret + ing = regretting (The accent is on the last syllable; the word ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant.)

    cancel + ed = canceled (The accent is not on the last syllable.)

    prefer + ed = preferred

    Exercise: Suffixes

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    Write the correct forms of the words with their suffixes.

    1. refer + ed
    2. refer + ence
    3. mope + ing
    4. approve + al
    5. green + ness
    6. benefit + ed
    7. resubmit + ing
    8. use + age
    9. greedy + ly
    10. excite + ment
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