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4.1: Rhetorical Modes of Writing

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    The Purpose of Narrative Writing

    Narration means the art of storytelling, and the purpose of narrative writing is to tell stories. Any time you tell a story to a friend or family member about an event or incident in your day, you engage in a form of narration.

    A narrative can be factual or fictional. A factual story is one that is based on, and tries to be faithful to, actual events as they unfolded in real life. A fictional story is a made-up, or imagined, story; when writing a fictional story, we can create characters and events to best fit our story.

    The big distinction between factual and fictional narratives is determined by a writer's purpose. The writers of factual stories try to recount events as they actually happened, but writers of fictional stories can depart from real people and events because their intentions are not to retell a real-life event. Biographies and memoirs are examples of factual stories, whereas novels and short stories are examples of fictional stories.

    Because the line between fact and fiction can often blur, it is helpful to understand what your purpose is from the beginning. Is it important that you recount history, either your own or someone else's? Or does your interest lie in reshaping the world in your own image either how you would like to see it or how you imagine it could be? Your answers will go a long way in shaping the stories you tell.

    Ultimately, whether the story is fact or fiction, narrative writing tries to relay a series of events in an emotionally engaging way. You want your audience to be moved by your story, which could mean through laughter, sympathy, fear, anger, and so on. The more clearly you tell your story, the more emotionally engaged your audience is likely to be.

    Exercise: Freewriting for a Narrative

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    On a separate sheet of paper, start brainstorming ideas for a narrative.

    1. First, decide whether you want to write a factual or fictional story.
    2. Pick a topic from the following list.
    3. Freewrite for five minutes. Be sure to use all five minutes, and keep writing the entire time. Do not stop to think about what to write.

    Here are some topics to consider to get you going:

    • Childhood
    • School
    • Adventure
    • Work
    • Love
    • Family
    • Friends
    • Vacation
    • Nature
    • Space

    The Structure of a Narrative Essay

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    Chronological Order and the Use of Time

    Major narrative events are most often conveyed in chronological-order, the order in which events unfold from first to last.

    Stories typically have a beginning, a middle, and an end, and these events are typically organized by time. However, sometimes it can be effective to begin with an exciting moment from the climax of the story (flash-forward) or a pivotal event from the past (flash-back) before returning to a chronological narration.

    Certain transitional words and phrases aid in keeping the reader oriented in the sequencing of a story. Some of these phrases are listed in Table of Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time.

    Table of Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time

    after/afterwards as soon as at last
    before currently during
    eventually finally first, second, third
    later meanwhile next
    now since soon
    still then until
    when/whenever while

    The following are the other basic components of a narrative:

    • Plot: the events as they unfold in sequence.
    • Characters: the people who inhabit the story and move it forward. Typically, there are minor characters and main characters. The minor characters generally play supporting roles to the main character, or the protagonist.
    • Conflict: the primary problem or obstacle that unfolds in the plot that the protagonist must solve or overcome by the end of the narrative. The way in which the protagonist resolves the conflict of the plot results in the theme of the narrative.
    • Theme: the ultimate message the narrative is trying to express; it can be either explicit or implicit.

    Narratives at Work

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    The Interview

    When interviewing candidates for jobs, employers often ask the candidate to tell a story. The interviewer may ask, "Tell me about some time when you faced difficulty and you overcame it."

    What the employer is asking for is a compelling personal narrative. To prepare for this question in a job interview, it is important to spend some time writing out your story using the narrative mode structure. This will allow you to troubleshoot rough spots in your story, condensing or adding detail to make it as interesting as possible.

    Selling a Product or Service

    The best way to connect with a potential client is to tell a compelling story about how your product or service was significant to you or someone you know in solving a problem or making something difficult easier to do.

    Spend some time thinking about how you have used a product or service you are selling, and why it would be important to you if you were a client. Write out a short story about the significance of your product or service, and then practice telling this story to friends or colleagues and getting their feedback to make it as good as you can.

    Social Media

    Prepare a social media post using a chronological narrative that recounts an important event or breakthrough at your workplace. Try to make it interesting, detailed, and brief.

    Think about what would be the most important information to share with your clients and colleagues. Don't forget that humor is often a great way to get more likes and shares, but make sure any humor you use is appropriate to your workplace.

    Have a colleague look it over before posting.

    Exercise: Drafting a Narrative

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    Use your freewriting exercise from the last section and start crafting a part of it chronologically into a rough plot summary. Be sure to use the time transition words and phrases listed in Table of Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time to sequence the events.

    Collaboration: Please share with a classmate and compare your rough plot summary.

    Writing a Narrative Essay

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    When writing a narrative essay, start by asking yourself if you want to write a factual or fictional story, then freewrite about topics that are of general interest to you.

    Once you have a general idea of what you will be writing about, you should sketch out the major events of the story that will constitute your plot. Typically, these events will be revealed chronologically and climax at a central conflict that must be resolved by the end of the story (although you might consider using a flash-forward or flash-back for dramatic effect).

    As always, it is important to start with a strong introduction to hook your reader into wanting to read more. Try opening the essay with an event that is interesting to introduce the story and get it going.

    The use of vivid details is crucial as you describe the events and characters in your narrative. You want the reader to emotionally engage with the world that you create in writing.

    To create strong details, keep the human senses in mind. You want your reader to be immersed in the world that you create, so focus on details related to sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch as you describe people, places, and events in your narrative. Use dialogue, when possible.

    Finally, your conclusion should help resolve the central conflict of the story and impress upon your reader the ultimate theme of the piece. See the student and professional essays at the end of this section to read a sample narrative essay.

    Exercise: Developing the Narrative

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    1. On a separate sheet of paper, add two or three paragraphs to the plot summary you started in the last section.

    2. Describe, in detail, the main character by using "Show Don't Tell."

    • Develop a simple description of the character.
    • Circle a general adjective that describes your character (i.e. "tall," "good looking," "thin.")
      • Instead of using the adjective, use words that "show" what the adjective means. Example: Tall = As I stood next to him, I craned my neck to look up into his piercing black eyes.

    3. Find any place where you said, "He said," or "She said," and substitute your description of what was said with dialogue. Example: He said he was scared = "I don't know about going down there, I'm frightened by dark enclosed places."

    4. Work slowly to build more and more detail into your essay. Try to use all five senses in your descriptions.

    5. Share your expanded draft to a peer to get feedback. Are there more places you could develop this essay?

    Sample Narrative Essay

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    Personal Statement

    One type of narrative essay you may have reason to write is a Personal Statement.

    Many colleges and universities ask for a Personal Statement Essay for students who are applying for admission, to transfer, or for scholarships.

    Generally, a Personal Statement asks you to respond to a specific prompt, most often asking you to describe a significant life event, a personality trait, or a goal or principle that motivates or inspires you. Personal Statements are essentially narrative essays with a particular focus on the writer's personal life.

    The following essay was responding to the prompt: "Write about an experience that made you aware of a skill or strength you possess." As you read, pay attention to the way the writer gets your attention with a strong opening, how he uses vivid details and a chronological narrative to tell his story, and how he links back to the prompt in the conclusion.

    Sample Student Essay

    Alen Abramyan
    Professor X
    English 1101-209

    In the Middle of Nowhere Fighting Adversity.

    A three-punch combination had me seeing stars. Blood started to rush down my nose. The Russian trainers quietly whispered to one another. I knew right away that my nose was broken. Was this the end of my journey; or was I about to face adversity?

    Ever since I was seven years old, I trained myself in, "The Art of Boxing." While most of the kids were out playing fun games and hanging out with their friends, I was in a damp, sweat-filled gym. My path was set to be a difficult one. Blood, sweat, and, tears were going to be an everyday occurrence.

    At a very young age I learned the meaning of hard work and dedication. Most kids jumped from one activity to the next. Some quit because it was too hard; others quit because they were too bored. My father pointed this out to me on many occasions. Adults would ask my father, " why do you let your son box? It's such a dangerous sport, he could get hurt. My father always replied, "Everyone is going to get hurt in their lives, physically, mentally and emotionally. I'm making sure he's ready for the challenges he's going to face as a man. I always felt strong after hearing my father speak that way about me. I was a boy being shaped into a man, what a great feeling it was.

    Year after year, I participated in boxing tournaments across the U.S. As the years went by, the work ethic and strength of character my father and coaches instilled in me, were starting to take shape. I began applying the hard work and dedication I learned in boxing, to my everyday life. I realized that when times were tough and challenges presented themselves, I wouldn't back down, I would become stronger. This confidence I had in myself, gave me the strength to pursue my boxing career in Russia.

    I traveled to Russia to compete in Amateur Boxing. Tournament after tournament I came closer to my goal of making the Russian Olympic Boxing team. After successfully winning the Kaliningrad regional tournament, I began training for the Northwest Championships. This would include boxers from St. Petersburg, Pskov, Kursk and many other powerful boxing cities.

    We had to prepare for a tough tournament, and that's what we did. While sparring one week before the tournament, I was caught by a strong punch combination to the nose. I knew right away it was serious. Blood began rushing down my face, as I noticed the coaches whispering to each other. They walked into my corner and examined my nose," yeah, it's broken," Yuri Ivonovich yelled out. I was asked to clean up and to meet them in their office. I walked in to the Boxing Federation office after a quick shower. I knew right away, they wanted to replace me for the upcoming tournament. "We're investing a lot of money on you boxers and we expect good results. Why should we risk taking you with a broken nose?" Yuri Ivonovich asked me. I replied, "I traveled half-way around the world to be here, this injury isn't a problem for me." And by the look on my face they were convinced, they handed me my train ticket and wished me luck.

    The train came to a screeching halt, shaking all the passengers awake. I glanced out my window, "Welcome to Cherepovets," the sign read. In the background I saw a horrific skyline of smokestacks, coughing out thick black smoke. Arriving in the city, we went straight to the weigh ins. Hundreds of boxers, all from many cities were there. The brackets were set up shortly after the weigh ins. In the Super Heavyweight division, I found out I had 4 fights to compete in, each increasing in difficulty. My first match, I made sure not a punch would land; this was true for the next two fights. Winning all three 6-0, 8-0 and 7-0 respectively. It looked like I was close to winning the whole tournament. For the finals I was to fight the National Olympic Hope Champion.

    The night before the finals was coincidentally the 200th anniversary of the city. All night by my hotel, I heard screams of laughter and partying. I couldn't sleep a wink. The morning of the fight I was exhausted but anxious. I stepped into the ring knowing that I was tired. I fell behind in points quickly in the first round. I felt as if I were dreaming, with no control of the situation. I was going along for the ride and it wasn't pleasant. At the end of the second round, the coach informed me that I was far behind. "?You're asleep in there," he yelled out to me, confirming how I felt. I knew this was my last chance; I had to give it my all. I mustered up enough strength to have an amazing round. It was as if I stepped out and a fresh boxer stepped in. I glanced at my coaches and see a look of approval. No matter the outcome, I felt that I had defeated adversity. My opponent's hand was raised ,he won a close decision, 6-5. After I got back to my hotel, I remembered Yuri Ivonovich telling me they expected good results. "How were my results," I asked myself. In my mind, the results were great, with a broken nose and with no sleep, I came one point shy of defeating the National Olympic Hope Champion.

    Even from a very young age, I knew that when my back was against the wall and adversity was knocking on my door, I would never back down. I became a stronger person, a trait my family made sure I would carry into my adult years. No matter what I'm striving for; getting into a University; receiving a scholarship; or applying for a job, I can proudly say to myself, I am Alen Abramyan and adversity is no match for me.

    Online Narrative Essay Alternatives

    *Note: Links to these articles may change or break. Access to them may be free of charge through your college/university library.

    Sandra Cisneros offers an example of a narrative essay in "Only Daughter" that captures her sense of her Chicana-Mexican heritage as the only daughter in a family of seven children.

    Gary Shteyngart came to the United States when he was seven years old. The son of Russian Jewish parents who struggled to provide a better life for their son, he reflects on his struggles, including becoming "American" in his New Yorker essay "Sixty-Nine Cents"

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