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Glossary

  • Page ID
    70916
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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition) The definition is case sensitive (Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages] (Optional) Caption for Image (Optional) External or Internal Link (Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...") (Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity") The infamous double helix https://bio.libretexts.org/ CC-BY-SA; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    5WH questions The questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories and that writers use in the writing process: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
    5WH questions The questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories and that writers use in the writing process: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
    abstract A concise (one hundred to one hundred fifty words) summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper.
    abstract A concise (one hundred to one hundred fifty words) summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper.
    abstract noun A noun that you cannot see, touch, or count.
    abstract noun A noun that you cannot see, touch, or count.
    action verb A verb that identifies the action the subject performs.
    action verb A verb that identifies the action the subject performs.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    agree To match parts of speech in number, case, gender or person.
    agree To match parts of speech in number, case, gender or person.
    analysis A purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another.
    analysis A purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another.
    annotate To add comments or notes to a document.
    annotate To add comments or notes to a document.
    antecedent The noun that a pronoun refers to.
    antecedent The noun that a pronoun refers to.
    Antonyms Words that have the opposite meaning of a given word.
    Antonyms Words that have the opposite meaning of a given word.
    apostrophe (’) A punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction.
    apostrophe (’) A punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction.
    appositive A word or group of words that describes or renames a noun or pronoun.
    appositive A word or group of words that describes or renames a noun or pronoun.
    argument A reasoned opinion supported and explained by evidence.
    argument A reasoned opinion supported and explained by evidence.
    audience The individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    audience The individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    Audience Identifies the individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    Audience Identifies the individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    auditory learner Someone who learns best through listening.
    auditory learner Someone who learns best through listening.
    author’s credibility The extent to which an author’s writing about a topic is believable or trustworthy. Writers evaluate credibility by considering the author’s professional expertise or academic qualifications on the topic.
    author’s credibility The extent to which an author’s writing about a topic is believable or trustworthy. Writers evaluate credibility by considering the author’s professional expertise or academic qualifications on the topic.
    Bias Favoritism or prejudice toward a particular person or group. Writers critically examine research sources for biases.
    Bias Favoritism or prejudice toward a particular person or group. Writers critically examine research sources for biases.
    block quotation A long quotation (forty words or more) that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted. Block quotations are indented five spaces from the left margin. The page reference is included in parentheses after the end punctuation for the quote.
    block quotation A long quotation (forty words or more) that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted. Block quotations are indented five spaces from the left margin. The page reference is included in parentheses after the end punctuation for the quote.
    body language Nonverbal cues, such as eye contact, facial expressions, posture, gestures, and movement, that convey a message to a speaker’s audience.
    body language Nonverbal cues, such as eye contact, facial expressions, posture, gestures, and movement, that convey a message to a speaker’s audience.
    Brainstorming A prewriting strategy similar to list making. Writers start with a general category and list specific items that fall into the category.
    Brainstorming A prewriting strategy similar to list making. Writers start with a general category and list specific items that fall into the category.
    capitalization Using a capital letter as the first letter of a word.
    capitalization Using a capital letter as the first letter of a word.
    caption A brief (one to two sentences) description or explanation of a visual image.
    caption A brief (one to two sentences) description or explanation of a visual image.
    cause-and-effect essay An essay that tries to determine how various phenomena are related.
    cause-and-effect essay An essay that tries to determine how various phenomena are related.
    chronological order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to time.
    chronological order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to time.
    classification To break down a subject into smaller, more manageable, more specific parts.
    classification To break down a subject into smaller, more manageable, more specific parts.
    Clichés A descriptive expression that has lost its effectiveness because it is overused.
    Clichés A descriptive expression that has lost its effectiveness because it is overused.
    coherence A quality in which the wording of an work clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph.
    coherence A quality in which the wording of an work clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph.
    Cohesion In writing, a quality that describes the elements of a paper working together smoothly and naturally.
    Cohesion In writing, a quality that describes the elements of a paper working together smoothly and naturally.
    collective noun A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    collective noun A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    Collective nouns A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    Collective nouns A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    colon (:) A punctuation mark that is used to indicate a full stop. Colons can introduce lists, quotes, examples, and explanations.
    colon (:) A punctuation mark that is used to indicate a full stop. Colons can introduce lists, quotes, examples, and explanations.
    comma A punctuation mark that tells the reader when to pause or when a word is part of a list.
    comma A punctuation mark that tells the reader when to pause or when a word is part of a list.
    comma splice A run-on sentence created by two complete sentences separated only by a single comma.
    comma splice A run-on sentence created by two complete sentences separated only by a single comma.
    commonly confused words Words that share a similar pronunciation, meaning, or spelling.
    commonly confused words Words that share a similar pronunciation, meaning, or spelling.
    Comparative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare two things.
    Comparative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare two things.
    compare-and-contrast essay An essay that analyzes two subjects by either comparing them, contrasting them, or both.
    compare-and-contrast essay An essay that analyzes two subjects by either comparing them, contrasting them, or both.
    Compound object pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the object of the sentence.
    Compound object pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the object of the sentence.
    compound subject A subject that is formed when two or more nouns are linked by the coordinating conjunctions and, or, or nor.
    compound subject A subject that is formed when two or more nouns are linked by the coordinating conjunctions and, or, or nor.
    Compound subject pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the subject of the sentence.
    Compound subject pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the subject of the sentence.
    compound subjects A subject that contains two or more nouns or pronouns joined by the words and, or, or nor.
    compound subjects A subject that contains two or more nouns or pronouns joined by the words and, or, or nor.
    concluding sentence The final sentence of a paragraph that summarizes the topic sentence using different words.
    concluding sentence The final sentence of a paragraph that summarizes the topic sentence using different words.
    conclusion The closing paragraph of an essay that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion.
    conclusion The closing paragraph of an essay that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion.
    Conclusion The final sentence in a paragraph that summarizes the main point.
    Conclusion The final sentence in a paragraph that summarizes the main point.
    conjunctive adverb An adverb that connects two clauses by describing the relationship between them.
    conjunctive adverb An adverb that connects two clauses by describing the relationship between them.
    connotation The emotional or cultural meaning attached to a word.
    connotation The emotional or cultural meaning attached to a word.
    Consistent verb tense Using the same verb tense throughout a sentence or paragraph.
    Consistent verb tense Using the same verb tense throughout a sentence or paragraph.
    Content All the written substance in a document.
    Content All the written substance in a document.
    Context The circumstances, conditions, or setting in which something exists or occurs.
    Context The circumstances, conditions, or setting in which something exists or occurs.
    context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    Context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    Context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    contraction A word that is formed by combining two words. In a contraction, an apostrophe shows where one or more letters have been left out.
    contraction A word that is formed by combining two words. In a contraction, an apostrophe shows where one or more letters have been left out.
    controlling idea Indicates the writer’s stance on the main idea of a paragraph. The controlling idea appears in the paragraph’s topic sentence.
    controlling idea Indicates the writer’s stance on the main idea of a paragraph. The controlling idea appears in the paragraph’s topic sentence.
    controlling idea The main idea that guides the content of an essay; the idea upon which a thesis statement is built.
    controlling idea The main idea that guides the content of an essay; the idea upon which a thesis statement is built.
    coordinating adjectives A series of adjectives that come before the noun they describe.
    coordinating adjectives A series of adjectives that come before the noun they describe.
    coordinating conjunction A word that links two independent clauses. Common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
    coordinating conjunction A word that links two independent clauses. Common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
    coordinating conjunction A linking word that joins two independent clauses. The seven common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and, so.
    coordinating conjunction A linking word that joins two independent clauses. The seven common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and, so.
    correlative conjunction A paired conjunction that connects two equal parts of a sentence and shows the relationship between them. Common correlative conjunctions include both…and, neither…nor, and either…or.
    correlative conjunction A paired conjunction that connects two equal parts of a sentence and shows the relationship between them. Common correlative conjunctions include both…and, neither…nor, and either…or.
    count nouns A noun that can be made plural by adding -s.
    count nouns A noun that can be made plural by adding -s.
    dangling modifier A word, phrase, or clause that describes or modifies something that has been left out of the sentence.
    dangling modifier A word, phrase, or clause that describes or modifies something that has been left out of the sentence.
    dangling modifier A modifier that is not logically connected to the rest of the sentence.
    dangling modifier A modifier that is not logically connected to the rest of the sentence.
    dash (—) A punctuation mark used to set off information in a sentence for emphasis.
    dash (—) A punctuation mark used to set off information in a sentence for emphasis.
    definite article The word the that refers to one or more specific things.
    definite article The word the that refers to one or more specific things.
    dependent clause A group of words that contain a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete thought.
    dependent clause A group of words that contain a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete thought.
    dependent word The first word in a dependent clause. Common dependent words are since, because, without, unless, and so on.
    dependent word The first word in a dependent clause. Common dependent words are since, because, without, unless, and so on.
    Description essays Essays that typically describe a person, a place, or an object using sensory details.
    Description essays Essays that typically describe a person, a place, or an object using sensory details.
    Direct quotations In notes, direct quotations use the exact wording found in the original source and enclose the quoted material in quotation marks.
    Direct quotations In notes, direct quotations use the exact wording found in the original source and enclose the quoted material in quotation marks.
    DOI Digital Object Identifier, an identification code provided for some online documents, typically articles in scholarly journals. DOIs are more stable than URLs, so they should be included in reference entries when available.
    DOI Digital Object Identifier, an identification code provided for some online documents, typically articles in scholarly journals. DOIs are more stable than URLs, so they should be included in reference entries when available.
    Double negatives Two negatives used in the same phrase or sentence.
    Double negatives Two negatives used in the same phrase or sentence.
    Drafting The stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing.
    Drafting The stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing.
    edit To examine a piece of writing for how the writer expressed his or her ideas. Editing often involves adding or changing words, and fixing any problems in grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.
    edit To examine a piece of writing for how the writer expressed his or her ideas. Editing often involves adding or changing words, and fixing any problems in grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.
    Enunciation How a speaker articulates words. Good speakers enunciate clearly.
    Enunciation How a speaker articulates words. Good speakers enunciate clearly.
    et al. An abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alia, meaning “and others.” This abbreviation frequently appears in citations for works with multiple authors.
    et al. An abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alia, meaning “and others.” This abbreviation frequently appears in citations for works with multiple authors.
    evaluation A purpose for writing that communicates a writer’s opinion about a document or a topic and the justifications for that opinion.
    evaluation A purpose for writing that communicates a writer’s opinion about a document or a topic and the justifications for that opinion.
    expository writing Writing that conveys facts or descriptions.
    expository writing Writing that conveys facts or descriptions.
    expository writing Writing that conveys facts or descriptions.
    expository writing Writing that conveys facts or descriptions.
    Facts Statements that can be definitely proven; ones that have, in a sense, an objective reality.
    Facts Statements that can be definitely proven; ones that have, in a sense, an objective reality.
    fair use A legitimate use of brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writer’s ideas. This includes the use of other copyrighted media, even though the user has not formally requested the copyright holder’s permission to reproduce the media. Many educational uses of visual media are generally considered fair use as long as the user scrupulously follows certain guidelines.
    fair use A legitimate use of brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writer’s ideas. This includes the use of other copyrighted media, even though the user has not formally requested the copyright holder’s permission to reproduce the media. Many educational uses of visual media are generally considered fair use as long as the user scrupulously follows certain guidelines.
    Fair use A legitimate use of brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writer’s ideas.
    Fair use A legitimate use of brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writer’s ideas.
    faulty parallelism A failure to create grammatically parallel structures in a sentence.
    faulty parallelism A failure to create grammatically parallel structures in a sentence.
    fictional story A made-up, or imagined, story.
    fictional story A made-up, or imagined, story.
    formal outline A detailed guide that shows how all the supporting ideas in an essay are related to one other.
    formal outline A detailed guide that shows how all the supporting ideas in an essay are related to one other.
    fragment An incomplete sentence that results when a subject or a verb is missing.
    fragment An incomplete sentence that results when a subject or a verb is missing.
    Freewriting A prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).
    Freewriting A prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).
    Freewriting A prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).
    Freewriting A prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).
    funnel technique A writing device that begins with a broad statement and then gradually moves toward the heart of the matter.
    funnel technique A writing device that begins with a broad statement and then gradually moves toward the heart of the matter.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    helping verb Verbs that are used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verb Verbs that are used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verb A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verb A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verbs A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verbs A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    Hidden agendas Goals that are not immediately obvious but that influence the way an author presents the facts in a piece of writing.
    Hidden agendas Goals that are not immediately obvious but that influence the way an author presents the facts in a piece of writing.
    Homonyms A word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning.
    Homonyms A word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning.
    hyphen (-) A punctuation mark that combines words that work together to form a single description, or it breaks a word across two lines of text.
    hyphen (-) A punctuation mark that combines words that work together to form a single description, or it breaks a word across two lines of text.
    Idea mapping A prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows.
    Idea mapping A prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows.
    Idioms Expressions that have a meaning different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words that make them up.
    Idioms Expressions that have a meaning different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words that make them up.
    illustration essay An essay that clearly demonstrates and supports a point through the use of evidence.
    illustration essay An essay that clearly demonstrates and supports a point through the use of evidence.
    In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper. In-text citations must have corresponding sources listed in the references section.
    In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper. In-text citations must have corresponding sources listed in the references section.
    indefinite articles The words a and an that refer to one nonspecific thing.
    indefinite articles The words a and an that refer to one nonspecific thing.
    Indefinite pronouns A pronoun that refers to an unspecified person, thing, or number.
    Indefinite pronouns Does not refer to a specific person or thing and is usually singular.
    Indefinite pronouns A pronoun that refers to an unspecified person, thing, or number.
    Indefinite pronouns Does not refer to a specific person or thing and is usually singular.
    independent clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete, grammatically correct thought. An independent clause is a complete sentence.
    independent clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete, grammatically correct thought. An independent clause is a complete sentence.
    indirect object A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers to whom or to what the action is being done. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect object A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers to whom or to what the action is being done. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect objects A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers the question to whom? or to what? after the verb. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect objects A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers the question to whom? or to what? after the verb. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect quotation A restatement of what someone said or wrote. An indirect quotation does not use the person’s exact words. You do not need to use quotation marks for indirect quotations.
    indirect quotation A restatement of what someone said or wrote. An indirect quotation does not use the person’s exact words. You do not need to use quotation marks for indirect quotations.
    infinitive A verb form that combines the word to with a verb, such as to buy, to go, or to gather.
    infinitive A verb form that combines the word to with a verb, such as to buy, to go, or to gather.
    interrupting words Words or phrases that describe a noun, separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Interrupters can come before or after the noun they describe.
    interrupting words Words or phrases that describe a noun, separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Interrupters can come before or after the noun they describe.
    introduction The opening paragraph of an essay that piques the audience’s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates the audience to keep reading.
    introduction The opening paragraph of an essay that piques the audience’s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates the audience to keep reading.
    inverted sentence A sentence that inverts the traditional subject-verb-object structure so that the verb follows the subject.
    inverted sentence A sentence that inverts the traditional subject-verb-object structure so that the verb follows the subject.
    irregular verbs Verbs that do not follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    irregular verbs Verbs whose endings do not follow regular patterns when shifting from present to past tense.
    irregular verbs Verbs that do not follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    irregular verbs Verbs whose endings do not follow regular patterns when shifting from present to past tense.
    kinesthetic learner Someone who learns best through hands-on activities.
    kinesthetic learner Someone who learns best through hands-on activities.
    learning style The way a learner prefers to take in new information.
    learning style The way a learner prefers to take in new information.
    linking verb A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    linking verb A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    linking verbs A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    linking verbs A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    misplaced modifier A modifier that is placed too far away from the word or words it modifies.
    misplaced modifier A modifier that is placed too far away from the word or words it modifies.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical, or in-text, citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical, or in-text, citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    modal auxiliaries A type of helping verb that is only used with a main verb to help express its mood.
    modal auxiliaries A type of helping verb that is only used with a main verb to help express its mood.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    Narrowing your focus The process of identifying a specific angle from which to approach a broad topic in order to limit it and make it more manageable.
    Narrowing your focus The process of identifying a specific angle from which to approach a broad topic in order to limit it and make it more manageable.
    noncount nouns A noun that cannot be counted in individual units.
    noncount nouns A noun that cannot be counted in individual units.
    object of the preposition A noun phrase or pronoun that follows a preposition and completes its meaning.
    object of the preposition A noun phrase or pronoun that follows a preposition and completes its meaning.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition; the “who” or “what” acted upon.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition; the “who” or “what” acted upon.
    Opinions Personal views, or judgments. All opinions are not created equal. An opinion in argumentation must have legitimate backing.
    Opinions Personal views, or judgments. All opinions are not created equal. An opinion in argumentation must have legitimate backing.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    Pace The speed or rate at which you speak.
    Pace The speed or rate at which you speak.
    parallelism Using the same grammatical structure to express equal ideas in a sentence. Parallelism may occur at the word, phrase, or clause level.
    parallelism Using the same grammatical structure to express equal ideas in a sentence. Parallelism may occur at the word, phrase, or clause level.
    paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures.
    paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures.
    paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures.
    paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures.
    Parentheses ( ) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to contain information that is secondary to the meaning of a sentence.
    Parentheses ( ) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to contain information that is secondary to the meaning of a sentence.
    past participle Often called the -ed form of the verb, it is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs.
    past participle Often called the -ed form of the verb, it is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs.
    peer review The process in which a writer allows a peer to read and evaluate a draft.
    peer review The process in which a writer allows a peer to read and evaluate a draft.
    periodical database A regularly updated online database that indexes the articles published in selected newspapers, magazines, and journals and provides publication information. Databases may focus on general news publications or on specific subject areas. Usually databases provide summary information about an article; often they allow users to access the full text of an article.
    periodical database A regularly updated online database that indexes the articles published in selected newspapers, magazines, and journals and provides publication information. Databases may focus on general news publications or on specific subject areas. Usually databases provide summary information about an article; often they allow users to access the full text of an article.
    persuasion The attempt to convince or move others to a certain point of view, or opinion.
    persuasion The attempt to convince or move others to a certain point of view, or opinion.
    Pitch How high or low a speaker’s voice is.
    Pitch How high or low a speaker’s voice is.
    plagiarism The practice of using someone else’s words or ideas without acknowledging the source.
    plagiarism The practice of using someone else’s words or ideas without acknowledging the source.
    Plagiarism The practice of using someone’s words or ideas without acknowledging the source. Plagiarism may be deliberate or may occur unintentionally through careless use of source material.
    Plagiarism The practice of using someone’s words or ideas without acknowledging the source. Plagiarism may be deliberate or may occur unintentionally through careless use of source material.
    possessive pronoun A pronoun that shows possession or ownership.
    possessive pronoun A pronoun that shows possession or ownership.
    prefix A word part added to the beginning of a word to create a new meaning.
    prefix A word part added to the beginning of a word to create a new meaning.
    preliminary research Research conducted early in the writing process for the purpose of exploring a topic and narrowing the focus.
    preliminary research Research conducted early in the writing process for the purpose of exploring a topic and narrowing the focus.
    preposition Type of word that connects a noun, pronoun, or verb to another word that describes or modifies it. Common prepositions include in, on, under, near, by, with, and about.
    preposition Type of word that connects a noun, pronoun, or verb to another word that describes or modifies it. Common prepositions include in, on, under, near, by, with, and about.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    Primary support The main points you use to support your thesis.
    Primary support The main points you use to support your thesis.
    process analysis essay An essay that explains how to do something, how something works, or both.
    process analysis essay An essay that explains how to do something, how something works, or both.
    Progressive verb tenses Verb tenses that describe a continuing or unfinished action.
    Progressive verb tenses Verb tenses that describe a continuing or unfinished action.
    project resources The documents, tools, or people that a writer relies on to complete a research project. Examples of project resources include library databases, personal computers, style guides, and tutors.
    project resources The documents, tools, or people that a writer relies on to complete a research project. Examples of project resources include library databases, personal computers, style guides, and tutors.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    Pronoun agreement When the pronoun and the antecedent match or agree with each other.
    Pronoun agreement When the pronoun and the antecedent match or agree with each other.
    qualitative data Data or statistics that are not strictly numerical.
    qualitative data Data or statistics that are not strictly numerical.
    Qualitative visuals Visuals present images that are to appeal to the audience’s emotions.
    Qualitative visuals Visuals present images that are to appeal to the audience’s emotions.
    Quantitative visuals Visuals that present data graphically. The purpose of using them is to make logical appeals to the audience.
    Quantitative visuals Visuals that present data graphically. The purpose of using them is to make logical appeals to the audience.
    Quotation marks (“ ”) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to enclose direct quotations and titles of short works.
    Quotation marks (“ ”) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to enclose direct quotations and titles of short works.
    references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.
    references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.
    Regular verbs Verbs that follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    Regular verbs Verbs whose endings follow regular patterns when shifting from the present to past tense.
    Regular verbs Verbs that follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    Regular verbs Verbs whose endings follow regular patterns when shifting from the present to past tense.
    relative clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and describes a noun. A relative clause functions as an adjective in a sentence.
    relative clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and describes a noun. A relative clause functions as an adjective in a sentence.
    relative pronoun A type of pronoun that helps combine two sentences.
    relative pronoun A type of pronoun that helps combine two sentences.
    Reputability A publication’s established reputation as a respectable, reliable source of information.
    Reputability A publication’s established reputation as a respectable, reliable source of information.
    research paper A composition that presents an original thesis about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a variety of sources.
    research paper A composition that presents an original thesis about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a variety of sources.
    research proposal A brief document that includes a writer’s main research question, related subquestions, working thesis, and plan for gathering information.
    research proposal A brief document that includes a writer’s main research question, related subquestions, working thesis, and plan for gathering information.
    research proposal A brief document that includes a writer’s main research question, related subquestions, working thesis, and plan for gathering information.
    research proposal A brief document that includes a writer’s main research question, related subquestions, working thesis, and plan for gathering information.
    research question A broad, open-ended question that a writer uses to guide the research process. In the research paper, the writer attempts to answer the question thoughtfully.
    research question A broad, open-ended question that a writer uses to guide the research process. In the research paper, the writer attempts to answer the question thoughtfully.
    resonance In public speaking, the strength, depth, and force of someone’s voice.
    resonance In public speaking, the strength, depth, and force of someone’s voice.
    revise To examine a piece of writing for clarity of ideas. Revising often includes adding, cutting, moving, or changing information in order to make the ideas clearer, more accurate, more interesting, or more convincing.
    revise To examine a piece of writing for clarity of ideas. Revising often includes adding, cutting, moving, or changing information in order to make the ideas clearer, more accurate, more interesting, or more convincing.
    Rhetorical modes The ways in which we can effectively communicate through language.
    Rhetorical modes The ways in which we can effectively communicate through language.
    run-on sentences A sentence made up of two or more independent clauses that have been incorrectly combined.
    run-on sentences A sentence made up of two or more independent clauses that have been incorrectly combined.
    Scholarly or academic journals Periodicals that address topics in a specialized field and are geared toward an audience with prior expertise in the field.
    Scholarly or academic journals Periodicals that address topics in a specialized field and are geared toward an audience with prior expertise in the field.
    secondary sources Research sources that provide information and include some analysis or interpretation of the information. Scholarly journals and magazine articles are usually considered secondary sources.
    secondary sources Research sources that provide information and include some analysis or interpretation of the information. Scholarly journals and magazine articles are usually considered secondary sources.
    section headings Headings used to organize information within an APA-style paper. APA style provides formatting guidelines for five levels of section and subsection headings; however, most college research papers require only one or two heading levels.
    section headings Headings used to organize information within an APA-style paper. APA style provides formatting guidelines for five levels of section and subsection headings; however, most college research papers require only one or two heading levels.
    semicolon (;) A punctuation mark that indicates a pause and joins two independent clauses or separates a list when the list already requires commas.
    semicolon (;) A punctuation mark that indicates a pause and joins two independent clauses or separates a list when the list already requires commas.
    sensory details Descriptions that appeal to our sense of sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch.
    sensory details Descriptions that appeal to our sense of sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch.
    sentence variety Use of an assortment of sentence patterns, rhythms, and lengths to reduce repetition and emphasize important points in a text.
    sentence variety Use of an assortment of sentence patterns, rhythms, and lengths to reduce repetition and emphasize important points in a text.
    Simple future Verb tense that is used when the action has not yet taken place.
    Simple future Verb tense that is used when the action has not yet taken place.
    Simple past Verb tense that is used when the action has already taken place and is now finished.
    Simple past Verb tense that is used when the action has already taken place and is now finished.
    Simple present Verb tense that describes things that are generally true, indicates that an action takes place in the present, or indicates that the action is something that happens regularly.
    Simple present Verb tense that describes things that are generally true, indicates that an action takes place in the present, or indicates that the action is something that happens regularly.
    single quotation marks (‘ ’) Punctuation marks that are always used in pairs to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
    single quotation marks (‘ ’) Punctuation marks that are always used in pairs to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
    slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    Slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    Slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    spatial order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
    spatial order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
    spatial order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
    spatial order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
    SQ3R strategy A widely used reading process that involves surveying the text and forming questions before reading; reading to answer questions, predict test material, and form new questions and predictions; reciting or recording the main points of the text; and reviewing and reflecting upon the material.
    SQ3R strategy A widely used reading process that involves surveying the text and forming questions before reading; reading to answer questions, predict test material, and form new questions and predictions; reciting or recording the main points of the text; and reviewing and reflecting upon the material.
    Subject pronouns A pronoun that functions as the subject in a sentence; the “who” and the “what” the sentence is about.
    Subject pronouns A pronoun that functions as the subject in a sentence; the “who” and the “what” the sentence is about.
    subordinating conjunction A word that connects a subordinate (dependent) clause to an independent (main) clause.
    subordinating conjunction A word that connects a subordinate (dependent) clause to an independent (main) clause.
    Subordination It joins two related ideas of unequal importance.
    Subordination It joins two related ideas of unequal importance.
    suffix A word part added to the end of a word to create a new meaning.
    suffix A word part added to the end of a word to create a new meaning.
    summarize To concisely restate in one’s own words the main ideas from a source.
    summarize To concisely restate in one’s own words the main ideas from a source.
    summary A purpose for writing that condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. Writers use their own words to create summaries.
    summary A purpose for writing that condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. Writers use their own words to create summaries.
    Superlative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare more than two people or two things.
    Superlative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare more than two people or two things.
    supporting points Details, facts, and explanations that develop and clarify a writer’s main point.
    supporting points Details, facts, and explanations that develop and clarify a writer’s main point.
    Supporting sentences A sentence in the middle part of the paragraph that helps explain, enhance, or prove the topic sentence.
    Supporting sentences A sentence in the middle part of the paragraph that helps explain, enhance, or prove the topic sentence.
    Synonyms Words that have the same, or almost the same, meaning as another word.
    Synonyms Words that have the same, or almost the same, meaning as another word.
    synthesis A purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point.
    synthesis A purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point.
    synthesize To combine different elements in order to create something new. When writing a research paper, writers synthesize information to arrive at new ideas or conclusions.
    synthesize To combine different elements in order to create something new. When writing a research paper, writers synthesize information to arrive at new ideas or conclusions.
    Testimony Quotations from people involved in a matter. It lends authenticity and credibility to an argument.
    Testimony Quotations from people involved in a matter. It lends authenticity and credibility to an argument.
    Theme The ultimate message a narrative is trying to express; it can be either explicit or implicit.
    Theme The ultimate message a narrative is trying to express; it can be either explicit or implicit.
    thesis A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    tone In writing, the attitude a writer conveys toward the subject and the audience.
    tone In writing, the attitude a writer conveys toward the subject and the audience.
    Tone In writing, a writer’s attitude toward his or her subject and audience. In public speaking, this term refers to the emotion a speaker conveys.
    Tone In writing, a writer’s attitude toward his or her subject and audience. In public speaking, this term refers to the emotion a speaker conveys.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. A topic sentence is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph, and it makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. A topic sentence is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph, and it makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. It is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph and makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic argument easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. It is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph and makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic argument easy to locate and comprehend.
    Trade magazines Magazines that address topics relevant to a particular industry.
    Trade magazines Magazines that address topics relevant to a particular industry.
    transition Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    transition Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    transitions Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    transitions Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    URL A uniform resource locator, or web address. Writers may provide URLs to help readers locate information that was accessed online. Guidelines for whether to provide a deep link within a site or a general link to the homepage or index vary depending on the type of online source.
    URL A uniform resource locator, or web address. Writers may provide URLs to help readers locate information that was accessed online. Guidelines for whether to provide a deep link within a site or a general link to the homepage or index vary depending on the type of online source.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    Verb tense A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    Verb tense A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    Verb tenses A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    Verb tenses A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    verbal learner Someone who learns best by reading or writing about new ideas.
    verbal learner Someone who learns best by reading or writing about new ideas.
    visual learner Someone who learns best when information is presented in a highly visual format.
    visual learner Someone who learns best when information is presented in a highly visual format.
    vocabulary A collection of spoken and written words used by individuals or groups.
    vocabulary A collection of spoken and written words used by individuals or groups.
    working bibliography A preliminary list of sources that a writer maintains during the research process and later uses to develop the references section in the research paper.
    working bibliography A preliminary list of sources that a writer maintains during the research process and later uses to develop the references section in the research paper.
    working thesis The first, preliminary thesis statement that a writer uses while outlining an essay. A working thesis statement may change during the writing process.
    working thesis The first, preliminary thesis statement that a writer uses while outlining an essay. A working thesis statement may change during the writing process.
    working thesis statement The first thesis statement writers use while outlining an assignment. A working thesis statement may change during the writing process.
    working thesis statement The first thesis statement writers use while outlining an assignment. A working thesis statement may change during the writing process.
    working thesis statement An indefinite statement that you make about your topic early in the writing process for the purpose of planning and guiding your writing.
    working thesis statement An indefinite statement that you make about your topic early in the writing process for the purpose of planning and guiding your writing.
    writing phase The second phase of a research project in which the writer drafts, revises, and edits the paper. Plan to spend half the time available on this phase. (You may spend additional time if your instructor reviews your rough draft and provides feedback.)
    writing phase The second phase of a research project in which the writer drafts, revises, and edits the paper. Plan to spend half the time available on this phase. (You may spend additional time if your instructor reviews your rough draft and provides feedback.)
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