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8.1: Sentence Writing

  • Page ID
    12085
  • JENIFER KURTZ

    1.Sentence writing

    2.Subject-verb agreement

    3.Verb tense

    4.Capitalization

    5.Pronouns

    6.Adjectives and adverbs

    7.Misplaced and dangling modifiers

    1.SENTENCE WRITING

    Imagine you are reading a book for school. You need to find important details that you can use for an assignment. However, when you begin to read, you notice that the book has very little punctuation. Sentences fail to form complete paragraphs and instead form one block of text without clear organization. Most likely, this book would frustrate and confuse you. Without clear and concise sentences, it is difficult to find the information you need.

    For both students and professionals, clear communication is important. Whether you are typing an e-mail or writing a report, it is your responsibility to present your thoughts and ideas clearly and precisely. Writing in complete sentences is one way to ensure that you communicate well. This section covers how to recognize and write basic sentence structures and how to avoid some common writing errors.

    Components of a Sentence

    Clearly written, complete sentences require key information: asubject, averb, and a complete idea. A sentence needs to make sense on its own. Sometimes, complete sentences are also calledindependent clauses. A clause is a group of words that may make up a sentence. An independent clause is a group of words that may stand alone as a complete, grammatically correct thought. The following sentences show independent clauses.

    Figure 8.1 “Sentence Components”

    Sentence Components

    All complete sentences have at least one independent clause. You can identify an independent clause by reading it on its own and looking for the subject and the verb.

    Subjects

    When you read a sentence, you may first look for the subject, or what the sentence is about. The subject usually appears at the beginning of a sentence as anounor apronoun. A noun is a word that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. Common pronouns areI,he,she,it,you,they, andwe. In the following sentences, the subject is underlined once.

    Malikis the project manager for this project.Hewill give us our assignments.

    In these sentences, the subject is a person:Malik. The pronounHereplaces and refers back toMalik.

    Thecomputer labis where we will work.Itwill be open twenty-four hours a day.

    In the first sentence, the subject is a place:computer lab. In the second sentence, the pronounItsubstitutes forcomputer labas the subject.

    Theprojectwill run for three weeks.Itwill have a quick turnaround.

    In the first sentence, the subject is a thing:project. In the second sentence, the pronounItstands in for theproject.

    Tip

    In this chapter, please refer to the following grammar key:

    Subjects are underlined once.

    Verbsare italicized.

    LV means linking verb, HV means helping verb, and V means action verb.

    Compound Subjects

    A sentence may have more than one person, place, or thing as the subject. These subjects are called compound subjects. Compound subjects are useful when you want to discuss several subjects at once.

    DesmondandMariahave been working on that design for almost a year.Books, magazines, andonline articlesare all good resources.

    Prepositional Phrases

    You will often read a sentence that has more than one noun or pronoun in it. You may encounter a group of words that includes a preposition with a noun or a pronoun. Prepositions connect a noun, pronoun, or verb to another word that describes or modifies that noun, pronoun, or verb. Common prepositions includein,on,under,near,by,with, andabout. A group of words that begin with aprepositionis called aprepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and modifies or describes a word. It cannot act as the subject of a sentence. The following circled phrases are examples of prepositional phrases.

    Figure 8.2 “Prepositional Phrases”

    Prepositional Phrases

    Exercise 1

    Read the following sentences. Underline the subjects, and circle the prepositional phrases.

    1. The gym is open until nine o’clock tonight.

    2. We went to the store to get some ice.

    3. The student with the most extra credit will win a homework pass.

    4. Maya and Tia found an abandoned cat by the side of the road.

    5. The driver of that pickup truck skidded on the ice.

    6. Anita won the race with time to spare.

    7. The people who work for that company were surprised about the merger.

    8. Working in haste means that you are more likely to make mistakes.

    9. The soundtrack has over sixty songs in languages from around the world.

    10. His latest invention does not work, but it has inspired the rest of us.

    Verbs

    Once you locate the subject of a sentence, you can move on to the next part of a complete sentence: the verb. A verb is often an action word that shows what the subject is doing. A verb can also link the subject to a describing word. There are three types of verbs that you can use in a sentence:action verbs,linking verbs, orhelping verbs.

    Action Verbs

    A verb that connects the subject to an action is called an action verb. An action verb answers the questionwhat is the subject doing?In the following sentences, the action verbs are in italics.

    The dogbarkedat the jogger.

    Hegavea short speech before we ate.

    Linking Verbs

    A verb can often connect the subject of the sentence to a describing word. This type of verb is called a linking verb because it links the subject to a describing word. In the following sentences, the linking verbs are in italics.

    The coatwasold and dirty.

    The clockseemedbroken.

    If you have trouble telling the difference between action verbs and linking verbs, remember that an action verb shows that the subject is doing something, whereas a linking verb simply connects the subject to another word that describes or modifies the subject.

    A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs.

    Action Verb: The boylookedfor his glove.

    Linking Verb: The boylookedtired.

    Although both sentences use the same verb, the two sentences have completely different meanings. In the first sentence, the verb describes the boy’s action. In the second sentence, the verb describes the boy’s appearance.

    Helping Verbs

    A third type of verb you may use as you write is a helping verb. Helping verbs are verbs that are used with the main verb to describe a mood or tense. Helping verbs are usually a form ofbe,do, orhave. The wordcanis also used as a helping verb.

    The restaurantis knownfor its variety of dishes.

    Shedoes speak upwhen prompted in class.

    Wehave seenthat movie three times.

    Shecan tellwhen someone walks on her lawn.

    (is, does, have, and can are helping verbs and known, speak up, seen, and tell are verbs)

    Tip

    Whenever you write or edit sentences, keep the subject and verb in mind. As you write, ask yourself these questions to keep yourself on track:

    Subject:Who or what is the sentence about?

    Verb:Which word shows an action or links the subject to a description?

    Exercise 2

    Copy each sentence onto your own sheet of paper and underline the verb(s) twice. Name the type of verb(s) used in the sentence in the space provided (LV, HV, or V).

    1. The cat sounds ready to come back inside. ________

    2. We have not eaten dinner yet. ________

    3. It took four people to move the broken-down car. ________

    4. The book was filled with notes from class. ________

    5. We walked from room to room, inspecting for damages. ________

    6. Harold was expecting a package in the mail. ________

    7. The clothes still felt damp even though they had been through the dryer twice. ________

    8. The teacher who runs the studio is often praised for his restoration work on old masterpieces. ________

    Sentence Structure, Including Fragments and Run-ons

    Now that you know what makes a complete sentence—a subject and a verb—you can use other parts of speech to build on this basic structure. Good writers use a variety of sentence structures to make their work more interesting. This section covers different sentence structures that you can use to make longer, more complex sentences.

    Sentence Patterns

    Six basic subject-verb patterns can enhance your writing. A sample sentence is provided for each pattern. As you read each sentence, take note of where each part of the sentence falls. Notice that some sentence patterns use action verbs and others use linking verbs.

    Subject–Verb

    Computers(subject)hum(verb)

    Subject–Linking Verb–Noun

    Computers(subject)are(linking verb) tool (noun)

    Subject–Linking Verb–Adjective

    Computers(subject)are(linking verb) expensive (adjective)

    Subject–Verb–Adverb

    Computers(subject)calculate(verb) quickly (adverb)

    Subject–Verb–Direct Object

    When you write a sentence with a direct object (DO), make sure that the DO receives the action of the verb.

    Sally (subject) rides (verb) a motorcycle (direct object)

    Subject–Verb–Indirect Object–Direct Object

    In this sentence structure, an indirect object explainsto whomorto whatthe action is being done. The indirect object is a noun or pronoun, and it comes before the direct object in a sentence.

    My coworker(subject)gave(verb) me (indirect object) the reports (direct object)

    Exercise 3

    Use what you have learned so far to bring variety in your writing. Use the following lines or your own sheet of paper to write six sentences that practice each basic sentence pattern. When you have finished, label each part of the sentence (S, V, LV, N, Adj, Adv, DO, IO).

    1. ________________________________________________________________

    2.________________________________________________________________

    3.________________________________________________________________

    4.________________________________________________________________

    5.________________________________________________________________

    6.________________________________________________________________

    Collaboration

    Find an article in a newspaper, a magazine, or online that interests you. Bring it to class or post it online. Then, looking at a classmate’s article, identify one example of each part of a sentence (S, V, LV, N, Adj, Adv, DO, IO). Please share or post your results.

    Fragments

    The sentences you have encountered so far have been independent clauses. As you look more closely at your past writing assignments, you may notice that some of your sentences are not complete. A sentence that is missing a subject or a verb is called a fragment. A fragment may include a description or may express part of an idea, but it does not express a complete thought.

    Fragment: Children helping in the kitchen.

    Complete sentence: Children helping in the kitchenoften make a mess.

    You can easily fix a fragment by adding the missing subject or verb. In the example, the sentence was missing a verb. Addingoften make a messcreates an S-V-N sentence structure.

    Figure 8.3 “Editing Fragments That Are Missing a Subject or a Verb

    Editing Fragments That Are Missing a Subject or a Verb

    See whether you can identify what is missing in the following fragments.

    Fragment: Told her about the broken vase.

    Complete sentence: I told her about the broken vase.

    Fragment: The store down on Main Street.

    Complete sentence: The store down on Main Streetsells music.

    Common Sentence Errors

    Fragments often occur because of some common error, such as starting a sentence with a preposition, a dependent word, an infinitive, or a gerund. If you use the six basic sentence patterns when you write, you should be able to avoid these errors and thus avoid writing fragments.

    When you see a preposition, check to see that it is part of a sentence containing a subject and a verb. If it is not connected to a complete sentence, it is a fragment, and you will need to fix this type of fragment by combining it with another sentence. You can add the prepositional phrase to the end of the sentence. If you add it to the beginning of the other sentence, insert a comma after the prepositional phrase.

    Figure 8.4 “Editing Fragments That Begin with a Preposition”

    Editing Fragments that Begin With a PrepositionExample A

    Incorrect: After walking over two miles. John remembered his wallet.

    Correct: After walking over two miles, John remembered his wallet.

    Correct: John remembered his wallet after walking over two miles.

    Example B

    Incorrect: The dog growled at the vacuum cleaner. When it was switched on.

    Correct: When the vacuum cleaner was switched on, the dog growled.

    Correct: The dog growled at the vacuum cleaner when it was switched on.

    Clauses that start with a dependent word—such assince,because,without, orunless—are similar to prepositional phrases. Like prepositional phrases, these clauses can be fragments if they are not connected to an independent clause containing a subject and a verb. To fix the problem, you can add such a fragment to the beginning or end of a sentence. If the fragment is added at the beginning of a sentence, add a comma.

    Incorrect: Because we lost power. The entire family overslept.

    Correct: Because we lost power, the entire family overslept.

    Correct: The entire family overslept because we lost power.

    Incorrect: He has been seeing a physical therapist. Since his accident.

    Correct: Since his accident, he has been seeing a physical therapist.

    Correct: He has been seeing a physical therapist since the accident.

    When you encounter a word ending iningin a sentence, identify whether or not this word is used as a verb in the sentence. You may also look for a helping verb. If the word is not used as a verb or if no helping verb is used with theingverb form, the verb is being used as a noun. Aningverb form used as a noun is called a gerund.

    Verb: Iwas(helping verb)working(verb) on homework until midnight.

    Noun:Workinguntil midnight makes me tired the next morning.

    Once you know whether theingword is acting as a noun or a verb, look at the rest of the sentence. Does the entire sentence make sense on its own? If not, what you are looking at is a fragment. You will need to either add the parts of speech that are missing or combine the fragment with a nearby sentence.

    Figure 8.5“Editing Fragments That Begin with a Gerund”

    Editing a Fragment That Begins With a Gerund

    Incorrect: Taking deep breaths. Saul prepared for his presentation.

    Correct: Taking deep breaths, Saul prepared for his presentation.

    Correct: Saul prepared for his presentation. He was taking deep breaths.

    Incorrect: Congratulating the entire team. Sarah raised her glass to toast their success.

    Correct: She was congratulating the entire team. Sarah raised her glass to toast their success.

    Correct: Congratulating the entire team, Sarah raised her glass to toast their success.

    Another error in sentence construction is a fragment that begins with an infinitive. An infinitive is a verb paired with the wordto; for example,to run,to write, orto reach. Although infinitives are verbs, they can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. You can correct a fragment that begins with an infinitive by either combining it with another sentence or adding the parts of speech that are missing.

    Incorrect: We needed to make three hundred more paper cranes. To reach the one thousand mark.

    Correct: We needed to make three hundred more paper cranes to reach the one thousand mark.

    Correct: We needed to make three hundred more paper cranes. We wanted to reach the one thousand mark.

    Exercise 4

    Copy the following sentences onto your own sheet of paper and circle the fragments. Then combine the fragment with the independent clause to create a complete sentence.

    1. Working without taking a break. We try to get as much work done as we can in an hour.

    2. I needed to bring work home. In order to meet the deadline.

    3. Unless the ground thaws before spring break. We won’t be planting any tulips this year.

    4. Turning the lights off after he was done in the kitchen. Robert tries to conserve energy whenever possible.

    5. You’ll find what you need if you look. On the shelf next to the potted plant.

    6. To find the perfect apartment. Deidre scoured the classifieds each day.

    External Links:

    For more information about fragments, follow thislink(https://tinyurl.com/yaggttd2).

    Run-on Sentences

    Just as short, incomplete sentences can be problematic, lengthy sentences can be problematic too. Sentences with two or more independent clauses that have been incorrectly combined are known as run-on sentences. A run-on sentence may be either a fused sentence or a comma splice.

    Fused sentence: A family of foxes lived under our shed young foxes played all over the yard.

    Comma splice: We looked outside, the kids were hopping on the trampoline.

    When two complete sentences are combined into one without any punctuation, the result is a fused sentence. When two complete sentences are joined by a comma, the result is a comma splice. Both errors can easily be fixed.

    Punctuation

    One way to correct run-on sentences is to correct the punctuation. For example, adding a period will correct the run-on by creating two separate sentences.

    Run-on: There were no seats left, we had to stand in the back.

    Correct: There were no seats left. We had to stand in the back.

    Using a semicolon between the two complete sentences will also correct the error. A semicolon allows you to keep the two closely related ideas together in one sentence. When you punctuate with a semicolon, make sure that both parts of the sentence are independent clauses.

    External Links:

    For more information on semicolons, seeCapitalize Proper Nouns.

    Run-on: The accident closed both lanes of traffic we waited an hour for the wreckage to be cleared.

    Complete sentence: The accident closed both lanes of traffic; we waited an hour for the wreckage to be cleared.

    When you use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses, you may wish to add a transition word to show the connection between the two thoughts. After the semicolon, add the transition word and follow it with a comma.

    Run-on: The project was put on hold we didn’t have time to slow down, so we kept working.

    Complete sentence: The project was put on hold; however, we didn’t have time to slow down, so we kept working.

    Coordinating Conjunctions

    You can also fix run-on sentences by adding a comma and a coordinating conjunction. A coordinating conjunction acts as a link between two independent clauses.

    Tip

    These are the seven coordinating conjunctions that you can use:for,and,nor,but,or,yet, andso. Use these words appropriately when you want to link the two independent clauses. The acronymFANBOYSwill help you remember this group of coordinating conjunctions.

    Run-on: The new printer was installed, no one knew how to use it.

    Complete sentence: The new printer was installed, but no one knew how to use it.

    Dependent Words

    Adding dependent words is another way to link independent clauses. Like the coordinating conjunctions, dependent words show a relationship between two independent clauses.

    Run-on: We took the elevator, the others still got there before us.

    Complete sentence: Although we took the elevator, the others got there before us.

    Run-on: Cobwebs covered the furniture, the room hadn’t been used in years.

    Complete sentence: Cobwebs covered the furniturebecausethe room hadn’t been used in years.

    Writing at Work

    Figure 8.6 “Sample e-mail”

    Sample e-mail

    Isabelle’s e-mail opens with two fragments and two run-on sentences containing comma splices. The e-mail ends with another fragment. What effect would this e-mail have on Mr. Blankenship or other readers? Mr. Blankenship or other readers may not think highly of Isaebelle’s communication skills or—worse—may not understand the message at all!

    Communications written in precise, complete sentences are not only more professional but also easier to understand. Before you hit the “send” button, read your e-mail carefully to make sure that the sentences are complete, are not run together, and are correctly punctuated.

    Exercise 5

    A reader can get lost or lose interest in material that is too dense and rambling. Use what you have learned about run-on sentences to correct the following passages:

    1. The report is due on Wednesday but we’re flying back from Miami that morning. I told the project manager that we would be able to get the report to her later that day she suggested that we come back a day early to get the report done and I told her we had meetings until our flight took off. We e-mailed our contact who said that they would check with his boss, she said that the project could afford a delay as long as they wouldn’t have to make any edits or changes to the file our new deadline is next Friday.

    2. Anna tried getting a reservation at the restaurant, but when she called they said that there was a waiting list so she put our names down on the list when the day of our reservation arrived we only had to wait thirty minutes because a table opened up unexpectedly which was good because we were able to catch a movie after dinner in the time we’d expected to wait to be seated.

    3. Without a doubt, my favorite artist is Leonardo da Vinci, not because of his paintings but because of his fascinating designs, models, and sketches, including plans for scuba gear, a flying machine, and a life-size mechanical lion that actually walked and moved its head. His paintings are beautiful too, especially when you see the computer enhanced versions researchers use a variety of methods to discover and enhance the paintings’ original colors, the result of which are stunningly vibrant and yet delicate displays of the man’s genius.

    Key Takeaways

    • A sentence is complete when it contains both a subject and verb. A complete sentence makes sense on its own.
    • Every sentence must have a subject, which usually appears at the beginning of the sentence. A subject may be a noun (a person, place, or thing) or a pronoun.
    • A prepositional phrase describes, or modifies, another word in the sentence but cannot be the subject of a sentence.
    • Variety in sentence structure and length improves writing by making it more interesting and more complex.
    • Fragments and run-on sentences are two common errors in sentence construction.
    • Fragments can be corrected by adding a missing subject or verb. Fragments that begin with a preposition or a dependent word can be corrected by combining the fragment with another sentence.
    • Run-on sentences can be corrected by adding appropriate punctuation or adding a coordinating conjunction.

    Writing Application

    Using the six basic sentence structures, write one of the following:

    1. A work e-mail to a coworker about a presentation.
    2. A business letter to a potential employer.
    3. A status report about your current project.
    4. A job description for your résumé.

    External Links:

    for more information on how to correct run-on sentences.

    2.SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

    In the workplace, you want to present a professional image. Your outfit or suit says something about you when meeting face-to-face, and your writing represents you in your absence. Grammatical mistakes in your writing or even in speaking make a negative impression on coworkers, clients, and potential employers. Subject-verb agreement is one of the most common errors that people make. Having a solid understanding of this concept is critical when making a good impression, and it will help ensure that your ideas are communicated clearly.

    Agreement

    Agreement in speech and in writing refers to the proper grammatical match between words and phrases. Parts of sentences must agree, or correspond with other parts, in number, person, case, and gender.

    • Number. All parts must match in singular or plural forms.
    • Person. All parts must match in first person (I), second person (you), or third person (he, she, it, they) forms.
    • Case. All parts must match in subjective (I, you, he, she, it, they, we), objective (me, her, him, them, us), or possessive (my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, their, theirs, our, ours) forms. For more information on pronoun case agreement, seePronoun Agreement.
    • Gender. All parts must match in male or female forms.

    Subject-verb agreement describes the proper match between subjects and verbs.

    Because subjects and verbs are either singular or plural, the subject of a sentence and the verb of a sentence must agree with each other in number. That is, a singular subject belongs with a singular verb form, and a plural subject belongs with a plural verb form. For more information on subjects and verbs, seeSentence Writing.

    Singular: The catjumpsover the fence.

    Plural: The catsjumpover the fence.

    Regular Verbs

    Regular verbs follow a predictable pattern. For example, in the third person singular, regular verbs always end in-s. Other forms of regular verbs do not end in-s.Study the following regular verb forms in the present tense.

    Figure 8.7 “Regular Verb Forms in the Present Tense”

    Singular Form

    Plural Form

    First Person

    I live

    We live

    Second Person

    You live

    You live

    Third Person

    He/She/It lives

    They live

    Tip

    Add anesto the third person singular form of regular verbs that end insh,-x,ch, and-s.(I wish/He wishes, I fix/She fixes, I watch/It watches, I kiss/He kisses.)

    Singular: Ireadevery day.

    Plural: Wereadevery day.

    In these sentences, the verb form stays the same for the first person singular and the first person plural.

    Singular: Youstretchbefore you go to bed.

    Plural: Youstretchbefore every game.

    In these sentences, the verb form stays the same for the second person singular and the second person plural. In the singular form, the pronounyourefers to one person. In the plural form, the pronounyourefers to a group of people, such as a team.

    Singular: My motherwalksto work every morning.

    In this sentence, the subject ismother. Because the sentence only refers to one mother, the subject is singular. The verb in this sentence must be in the third person singular form.

    Plural: My friendslikethe same music as I do.

    In this sentence, the subject isfriends. Because this subject refers to more than one person, the subject is plural. The verb in this sentence must be in the third person plural form.

    Tip

    Many singular subjects can be made plural by adding an-s. Most regular verbs in the present tense end with an –sin the third person singular. This does not make the verbs plural.

    Singular subject, singular verb: Thecatracesacross the yard.

    Plural subject, plural verb: Thecatsraceacross the yard.

    Exercise 6

    On your own sheet of paper, write the correct verb form for each of the following sentences.

    1. I (brush/brushes) my teeth twice a day.

    2. You (wear/wears) the same shoes every time we go out.

    3. He (kick/kicks) the soccer ball into the goal.

    4. She (watch/watches) foreign films.

    5. Catherine (hide/hides) behind the door.

    6. We (want/wants) to have dinner with you.

    7. You (work/works) together to finish the project.

    8. They (need/needs) to score another point to win the game.

    9. It (eat/eats) four times a day.

    10. David (fix/fixes) his own motorcycle.

    Irregular Verbs

    Not all verbs follow a predictable pattern. These verbs are called irregular verbs. Some of the most common irregular verbs arebe,have, anddo. Learn the forms of these verbs in the present tense to avoid errors in subject-verb agreement.

    Be

    Study the different forms of the verbto bein the present tense.

    Figure 8.8 “Forms of To Be Present Tense”

    Singular Form

    Plural Form

    First Person

    I am

    We are

    Second Person

    You are

    You are

    Third Person

    He/She/It is

    They are

    Have

    Study the different forms of the verbto havein the present tense.

    Figure 8.9 “Forms of To Have Present Tense”

    Singular Form

    Plural Form

    First Person

    I have

    We have

    Second Person

    You have

    You have

    Third Person

    He/She/It has

    They have

    Do

    Study the different forms of the verbto doin the present tense.

    Figure 8.10 “Forms of To Do Present Tense”

    Singular Form

    Plural Form

    First Person

    I do

    We do

    Second Person

    You do

    You do

    Third person

    He/She/It does

    They do

    Exercise 7

    Complete the following sentences by writing the correct present tense form ofbe,have, ordo. Use your own sheet of paper to complete this exercise.

    1. I ________ sure that you will succeed.

    2. They ________ front-row tickets to the show.

    3. He ________ a great Elvis impersonation.

    4. We ________ so excited to meet you in person!

    5. She ________ a fever and a sore throat.

    6. You ________ not know what you are talking about.

    7. You ________ all going to pass this class.

    8. She ________ not going to like that.

    9. It ________ appear to be the right size.

    10. They ________ ready to take this job seriously.

    Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement

    Errors in subject-verb agreement may occur when

    • a sentence contains a compound subject;
    • the subject of the sentence is separate from the verb;
    • the subject of the sentence is an indefinite pronoun, such asanyoneoreveryone;
    • the subject of the sentence is a collective noun, such asteamororganization;
    • the subject appears after the verb.

    Recognizing the sources of common errors in subject-verb agreement will help you avoid these errors in your writing. This section covers the subject-verb agreement errors in more detail.

    Compound Subjects

    A compound subject is formed by two or more nouns and the coordinating conjunctionsand,or, ornor. A compound subject can be made of singular subjects, plural subjects, or a combination of singular and plural subjects.

    Compound subjects combined withandtake a plural verb form.

    Two singular subjects:AliciaandMiguelridetheir bikes to the beach.

    Two plural subjects: Thegirlsand theboysridetheir bikes to the beach.

    Singular and plural subjects:Aliciaand theboysridetheir bikes to the beach.

    Compound subjects combined withorandnorare treated separately. The verb must agree with the subject that is nearest to the verb.

    Two singular subjects: NeitherElizabethnorRiannawantsto eat at that restaurant.

    Two plural subjects: Neither thekidsnor theadultswantto eat at that restaurant.

    Singular and plural subjects: NeitherElizabethnor thekidswantto eat at that restaurant.

    Plural and singular subjects: Neither thekidsnorElizabethwantsto eat at that restaurant.

    Two singular subjects: EitheryouorJasontakesthe furniture out of the garage.

    Two plural subjects: Eitheryouor thetwinstakethe furniture out of the garage.

    Singular and plural subjects: EitherJasonor thetwinstakethe furniture out of the garage.

    Plural and singular subjects: Either thetwinsorJasontakesthe furniture out of the garage.

    Tip

    If you can substitute the wordtheyfor the compound subject, then the sentence takes the third person plural verb form.

    Separation of Subjects and Verbs

    As you read or write, you may come across a sentence that contains a phrase or clause that separates the subject from the verb. Often, prepositional phrases or dependent clauses add more information to the sentence and appear between the subject and the verb. However, the subject and the verb must still agree.

    If you have trouble finding the subject and verb, cross out or ignore the phrases and clauses that begin with prepositions or dependent words. The subject of a sentence will never be in a prepositional phrase or dependent clause.

    The following is an example of a subject and verb separated by a prepositional phrase:

    Thestudentswith the best gradeswinthe academic awards.

    Thepuppyunder the tableismy favorite.

    The following is an example of a subject and verb separated by a dependent clause:

    Thecarthat I boughthaspower steering and a sunroof.

    Therepresentativeswho are courteoussellthe most tickets.

    Indefinite Pronouns

    Indefinite pronouns refer to an unspecified person, thing, or number. When an indefinite pronoun serves as the subject of a sentence, you will often use a singular verb form.However, keep in mind that exceptions arise. Some indefinite pronouns may require a plural verb form. To determine whether to use a singular or plural verb with an indefinite pronoun, consider the noun that the pronoun would refer to. If the noun is plural, then use a plural verb with the indefinite pronoun. View the chart to see a list of common indefinite pronouns and the verb forms they agree with.

    Figure 8.11 “Common Indefinite Pronouns”

    Indefinite Pronouns That Always Take a Singular Verb

    Indefinite Pronouns That Can Take a Singular or Plural Verb

    anybody, anyone, anything

    All

    each

    Any

    everybody, everyone, everything

    None

    much

    Some

    many

    nobody, no one, nothing

    somebody, someone, something

    Singular:Everybodyin the kitchensingsalong when that song comes on the radio.

    The indefinite pronouneverybodytakes a singular verb form becauseeverybodyrefers to a group performing the same action as a single unit.

    Plural:Allthe people in the kitchensingalong when that song comes on the radio.

    The indefinite pronounalltakes a plural verb form becauseallrefers to the plural nounpeople. Becausepeopleis plural,allis plural.

    Singular:Al lthe cakeison the floor.

    In this sentence, the indefinite pronounalltakes a singular verb form becauseallrefers to the singular nouncake. Becausecakeis singular,allis singular.

    Collective Nouns

    A collective noun is a noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and considers those people, places, or things one singular unit. Because collective nouns are counted as one, they are singular and require a singular verb. Some commonly used collective nouns aregroup,team,army,flock,family, andclass.

    Singular: Theclassisgoing on a field trip.

    In this sentence,classis a collective noun. Although the class consists of many students, the class is treated as a singular unit and requires a singular verb form.

    The Subject Follows the Verb

    You may encounter sentences in which the subject comes after the verb instead of before the verb. In other words, the subject of the sentence may not appear where you expect it to appear. To ensure proper subject-verb agreement, you must correctly identify the subject and the verb.

    Here or There

    In sentences that begin withhereorthere, the subject follows the verb.

    Hereismywallet!

    Therearethirtydolphinsin the water.

    If you have trouble identifying the subject and the verb in sentences that start withhereorthere; it may help to reverse the order of the sentence so the subject comes first.

    Mywalletishere!

    Thirtydolphinsarein the water.

    Questions

    When you ask questions, a question word (who,what,where,when,why, orhow) appears first. The verb and then the subject follow.

    Whoarethepeopleyou are related to?

    WhenamI going to go to the grocery store?

    Tip

    If you have trouble finding the subject and the verb in questions, try answering the question being asked.

    WhenamI going to the grocery store? Iamgoing to the grocery store tonight!

    Exercise 8

    Correct the errors in subject-verb agreement in the following sentences. If there are no errors in subject-verb agreement, writeOK. Copy the corrected sentence or the wordOKon your own sheet of notebook paper.

    1. My dog and cats chases each other all the time.

    2. The books that are in my library is the best I have ever read.

    3. Everyone are going to the concert except me.

    4. My family are moving to California.

    5. Here is the lake I told you about.

    6. There is the newspapers I was supposed to deliver.

    7. Which room is bigger?

    8. When are the movie going to start?

    9. My sister and brother cleans up after themselves.

    10. Some of the clothes is packed away in the attic.

    Exercise 9

    Correct the errors in subject-verb agreement in the following paragraph. Copy the paragraph on a piece of notebook paper and make corrections.

    Dear Hiring Manager,

    I feels that I am the ideal candidate for the receptionist position at your company. I has three years of experience as a receptionist in a company that is similar to yours. My phone skills and written communication is excellent. These skills, and others that I have learned on the job, helps me understand that every person in a company helps make the business a success. At my current job, the team always say that I am very helpful. Everyone appreciate when I go the extra mile to get the job done right. My current employer and coworkers feels that I am an asset to the team. I is efficient and organized. Is there any other details about me that you would like to know? If so, please contact me. Here are my résumé. You can reach me by e-mail or phone. I looks forward to speaking with you in person.

    Thanks,

    Felicia Fellini

    Writing at Work

    Figure 8.12 “Advertisement”

    Imagine that you are a prospective client and that you saw this ad online. Would you call Terra Services to handle your next project? Probably not! Mistakes in subject-verb agreement can cost a company business. Paying careful attention to grammatical details ensures professionalism that clients will recognize and respect.

    Key Takeaways

    • Parts of sentences must agree in number, person, case, and gender.
    • A verb must always agree with its subject in number. A singular subject requires a singular verb; a plural subject requires a plural verb.
    • Irregular verbs do not follow a predictable pattern in their singular and plural forms. Common irregular verbs arebe,have, anddo.
    • A compound subject is formed when two or more nouns are joined by the wordsand,or, ornor.
    • In some sentences, the subject and verb may be separated by a phrase or clause, but the verb must still agree with the subject.
    • Indefinite pronouns, such asanyone,each,everyone,many,no one, andsomething, refer to unspecified people or objects. Most indefinite pronouns are singular.
    • A collective noun is a noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things one singular unit. Collective nouns require singular verbs.
    • In sentences that begin withhereandthere, the subject follows the verb.
    • In questions, the subject follows the verb.

    Writing Application

    Use your knowledge of subject-verb agreement to write one of the following:

    1. An advertisement for a potential company
    2. A memo to all employees of a particular company
    3. A cover letter describing your qualifications to a potential employer
    4. Be sure to include at least the following:
    5. One collective noun
    6. One irregular verb
    7. One question

    3.VERB TENSE

    Suppose you must give an oral presentation about what you did last summer. How do you make it clear that you are talking about the past and not about the present or the future? Using the correct verb tense can help you do this.

    It is important to use the proper verb tense. Otherwise, your listener might judge you harshly. Mistakes in tense often leave a listener or reader with a negative impression.

    Regular Verbs

    Verbs indicate actions or states of being in the past, present, or future using tenses. Regular verbs follow regular patterns when shifting from the present to past tense. For example, to form a past-tense or past-participle verb form, addedor-dto the end of a verb. You can avoid mistakes by understanding this basic pattern.

    Verb tense identifies the time of action described in a sentence. Verbs take different forms to indicate different tenses. Verb tenses indicate

    • an action or state of being in the present,
    • an action or state of being in the past,
    • an action or state of being in the future.

    Helping verbs, such asbeandhave,also work to create verb tenses, such as the future tense.

    Present Tense:Timewalksto the store. (Singular subject)

    Present Tense:SueandKimmywalkto the store. (Plural subject)

    Past Tense: Yesterday,theywalkedto the store to buy some bread. (Singular subject)

    Exercise 10

    Complete the following sentences by selecting the correct form of the verb in simple present, simple past, or simple future tenses. Write the corrected sentence on your own sheet of paper.

    1. The Dust Bowl (is, was, will be) a name given to a period of very destructive dust storms that occurred in the United States during the 1930s.

    2. Historians today (consider, considered, will consider) The Dust Bowl to be one of the worst weather of events in American history.

    3. The Dust Bowl mostly (affects, affected, will affect) the states of Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico.

    4. Dust storms (continue, continued, will continue) to occur in these dry regions, but not to the devastating degree of the 1930s.

    5. The dust storms during The Dust Bowl (cause, caused, will cause) irreparable damage to farms and the environment for a period of several years.

    6. When early settlers (move, moved, will move) into this area, they (remove, removed, will remove) the natural prairie grasses in order to plant crops and graze their cattle.

    7. They did not (realize, realized, will realize) that the grasses kept the soil in place.

    8. There (is, was, will be) also a severe drought that (affects, affected, will affect) the region.

    9. The worst dust storm (happens, happened, will happen) on April 14, 1935, a day called Black Sunday.

    10. The Dust Bowl era finally came to end in 1939 when the rains (arrive, arrived, will arrive).

    11. Dust storms (continue, continued, will continue) to affect the region, but hopefully they will not be as destructive as the storms of the 1930s.

    Irregular Verbs

    The past tense of irregular verbs is not formed using the patterns that regular verbs follow.

    Here we consider using irregular verbs.

    Present Tense: Laurenkeepsall her letters.

    Past Tense: Laurenkeptall her letters.

    Future Tense: Laurenwill keepall her letters.

    Exercise 11

    Complete the following sentences by selecting the correct form of the irregular verb in simple present, simple past, or simple future tense. Copy the corrected sentence onto your own sheet of paper.

    1. Marina finally (forgived, forgave, will forgive) her sister for snooping around her room.

    2. The house (shook, shaked, shakes) as the airplane rumbled overhead.

    3. I (buyed, bought, buy) several items of clothing at the thrift store on Wednesday.

    4. She (put, putted, puts) the lotion in her shopping basket and proceeded to the checkout

    line.

    5. The prized goose (layed, laid, lay) several golden eggs last night.

    6. Mr. Batista (teached, taught, taughted) the class how to use correct punctuation.

    7. I (drink, drank, will drink) several glasses of sparkling cider instead of champagne on

    New Year’s Eve next year.

    8. Although Hector (growed, grew, grows) three inches in one year, we still called him “Little Hector.”

    9. Yesterday our tour guide (lead, led, will lead) us through the maze of people in Times Square.

    10. The rock band (burst, bursted, bursts) onto the music scene with its catchy songs.

    Exercise 12

    On your own sheet of paper, write a sentence using the correct form of the verb tense shown below.

    1. Throw (past)

    2. Paint (simple present)

    3. Smile (future)

    4. Tell (past)

    5. Share (simple present)

    Maintaining Consistent Verb Tense

    Consistent verb tense means the same verb tense is used throughout a sentence or a paragraph. As you write and revise, it is important to use the same verb tense consistently and to avoid shifting from one tense to another unless there is a good reason for the tense shift. In the following box, see whether you notice the difference between a sentence with consistent tense and one with inconsistent tense.

    Inconsistent tense:

    The crowdstartscheering as Melinaapproachedthe finish line.

    Consistent tense:

    The crowdstartedcheering as Melinaapproachedthe finish line.

    Consistent tense:

    The crowdstartscheering as Melinaapproachesthe finish line.

    Tip

    In some cases, clear communication will call for different tenses. Look at the following example:

    When I was a teenager, Iwantedto be a firefighter, but not Iam studyingcomputer science.

    If the time frame for each action or state is different, a tense shift is appropriate.

    Exercise 13

    Edit the following paragraph by correcting the inconsistent verb tense. Copy the corrected paragraph onto your own sheet of paper.

    In the Middle Ages, most people lived in villages and work as agricultural laborers, or peasants. Every village has a “lord,” and the peasants worked on his land. Much of what they produce go to the lord and his family. What little food was leftover goes to support the peasants’ families. In return for their labor, the lord offers them protection. A peasant’s day usually began before sunrise and involves long hours of backbreaking work, which includes plowing the land, planting seeds, and cutting crops for harvesting. The working life of a peasant in the Middle Ages is usually demanding and exhausting.

    Writing at Work

    Read the following excerpt from a work e-mail:

    Figure 8.12 “Work e-mail,”

    Work e-mail

    The inconsistent tense in the e-mail will very likely distract the reader from its overall point. Most likely, your coworkers will not correct your verb tenses or call attention to grammatical errors, but it is important to keep in mind that errors such as these do have a subtle negative impact in the workplace.

    Key Takeaways

    Verb tense helps you express when an event takes place.

    Regular verbs follow regular patterns when shifting from present to past tense.

    Irregular verbs do not follow regular, predictable patterns when shifting from present to past tense.

    Using consistent verb tense is a key element to effective writing.

    Writing Application

    Tell a family story. You likely have several family stories to choose from, but pick the one that you find most interesting to write about. Use as many details as you can in the telling. As you write and proofread, make sure your all your verbs are correct and the tenses are consistent.

    External Links:

    Follow thislink(https://tinyurl.com/y7t629xu) for more information concerning verbs.

    4.CAPITALIZATION

    Text messages, casual e-mails, and instant messages often ignore the rules of capitalization. In fact, it can seem unnecessary to capitalize in these contexts. In other, more formal forms of communication, however, knowing the basic rules of capitalization and using capitalization correctly gives the reader the impression that you choose your words carefully and care about the ideas you are conveying.

    Capitalize the First Word of a Sentence

    Incorrect: the museum has a new butterfly exhibit.

    Correct: The museum has a new butterfly exhibit.

    Incorrect: cooking can be therapeutic.

    Correct: Cooking can be therapeutic.

    Capitalize Proper Nouns

    Proper nouns—the names of specific people, places, objects, streets, buildings, events, or titles of individuals—are always capitalized.

    Incorrect: He grew up in harlem, new york.

    Correct: He grew up in Harlem, New York.

    Incorrect: The sears tower in chicago has a new name.

    Correct: The Sears Tower in Chicago has a new name.

    Tip

    Always capitalize nationalities, races, languages, and religions. For example, American, African American, Hispanic, Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, and so on.

    Do not capitalize nouns for people, places, things, streets, buildings, events, and titles when the noun is used in general or common way. See the following chart for the difference between proper nouns and common nouns.

    Figure 8.13 “Common and Proper Nouns,”

    Common Noun

    Proper Noun

    museum

    The Art Institute of Chicago

    theater

    Apollo Theater

    country

    Malaysia

    uncle

    Uncle Javier

    doctor

    Dr. Jackson

    book

    Pride and Prejudice

    college

    Smith College

    war

    the Spanish-American War

    historical event

    The Renaissance

    Exercise 14

    On your own sheet of paper, write five proper nouns for each common noun that is listed. The first one has been done for you.

    Common noun: river

    1. Nile River

    2.

    3.

    Common noun: musician

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    Common noun: magazine

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    Collaboration

    Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

    Capitalize Days of the Week, Months of the Year, and Holidays

    Incorrect: On wednesday, I will be traveling to Austin for a music festival.

    Correct: On Wednesday, I will be traveling to Austin for a music festival.

    Incorrect: The fourth of july is my favorite holiday.

    Correct: The Fourth of July is my favorite holiday.

    Capitalize Titles

    Incorrect: The play,fences, by August Wilson is one of my favorites.

    Correct: The play,Fences, by August Wilson is one of my favorites.

    Incorrect: The president of the united states will be speaking at my university.

    Correct: The President of the United States will be speaking at my university.

    Tip

    Computer-related words such as “Internet” and “World Wide Web” are usually capitalized; however, “e-mail” and “online” are never capitalized.

    Exercise 15

    Edit the following sentences by correcting the capitalization of the titles or names.

    1. The prince of england enjoys playing polo.

    2. “Ode to a nightingale” is a sad poem.

    3. My sister loves to read magazines such as the new yorker.

    4. The house on Mango streetis an excellent novel written by Sandra Cisneros.

    5. My physician, dr. alvarez, always makes me feel comfortable in her office.

    Exercise 16

    Edit the following paragraphs by correcting the capitalization.

    david grann’sthe lost City of Zmimics the snake-like winding of the amazon River. The three distinct Stories that are introduced are like twists in the River. First, the Author describes his own journey to the amazon in the present day, which is contrasted by an account of percy fawcett’s voyage in 1925 and a depiction of James Lynch’s expedition in 1996. Where does the river lead these explorers? the answer is one that both the Author and the reader are hungry to discover.

    The first lines of the preface pull the reader in immediately because we know the author, david grann, is lost in the amazon. It is a compelling beginning not only because its thrilling but also because this is a true account of grann’s experience. grann has dropped the reader smack in the middle of his conflict by admitting the recklessness of his decision to come to this place. the suspense is further perpetuated by his unnerving observation that he always considered himself a Neutral Witness, never getting personally involved in his stories, a notion that is swiftly contradicted in the opening pages, as the reader can clearly perceive that he is in a dire predicament—and frighteningly involved.

    Writing at Work

    Did you know that, if you use all capital letters to convey a message, the capital letters come across like shouting? In addition, all capital letters are actually more difficult to read and may annoy the reader. To avoid “shouting” at or annoying your reader, follow the rules of capitalization and find other ways to emphasize your point.

    Key Takeaways

    Learning and applying the basic rules of capitalization is a fundamental aspect of good writing.

    Identifying and correcting errors in capitalization is an important writing skill.

    Writing Application

    Write a one-page biography. Make sure to identify people, places, and dates and use capitalization correctly.

    External Links:

    Follow thislink(https://tinyurl.com/y8bnxecf) for more information regarding capitalization.

    5.PRONOUNS

    If there were no pronouns, all types of writing would be quite tedious to read. We would soon be frustrated by reading sentences likeBob said that Bob was tiredorChristina told the class that Christina received an A.Pronouns help a writer avoid constant repetition. Knowing just how pronouns work is an important aspect of clear and concise writing.

    Pronoun Agreement

    A pronoun is a word that takes the place of (or refers back to) a noun or another pronoun. The word or words a pronoun refers to is called the antecedent of the pronoun.

    1.Lanicomplained thatshewas exhausted.

    Sherefers toLani.

    Laniis the antecedent ofshe.

    2.Jeremyleft the party early, so I did not seehimuntil Monday at work.

    Himrefers to Jeremy.

    Jeremyis the antecedent ofhim.

    3.Crinaand Rosaliehave been best friends ever sincetheywere freshman in high school.

    Theyrefers toCrinaand Rosalie.

    Crinaand Rosalieis the antecedent ofthey.

    Pronoun agreement errors occur when the pronoun and the antecedent do not match or agree with each other. There are several types of pronoun agreement.

    Agreement in Number

    If the pronoun takes the place of or refers to a singular noun, the pronoun must also be singular.

    Incorrect: If astudent(sing.) wants to return a book to the bookstore,they(plur.) must have a receipt.

    Correct: If astudent(sing.) wants to return a book to the bookstore,he or she(sing.) must have a receipt.

    *If it seems too wordy to usehe or she, change the antecedent to a plural noun.

    Correct: Ifstudents(plur.) want to return a book to the bookstore,they(plur.) must have a receipt.

    Agreement in Person

    Figure 8.14 “Singular and Plural Pronouns”

    Singular Pronouns

    Plural Pronouns

    First Person

    I

    me

    my (mine)

    we

    us

    our (ours)

    Second Person

    you

    you

    your (yours)

    you

    you

    your (your)

    Third Person

    he, she, it

    him, her, it

    his, her, its

    they

    them

    their (theirs)

    If you use a consistent person, your reader is less likely to be confused.

    Incorrect: When aperson(3rd) goes to a restaurant,you(2nd) should leave a tip.

    Correct: When aperson(3rd) goes to a restaurant,he or she(3rd) should leave a tip.

    Correct: Whenwe(1st) go to a restaurant,I should(1st) should leave a tip.

    Exercise 17

    Edit the following paragraph by correcting pronoun agreement errors in number and person.

    Over spring break I visited my older cousin, Diana, and they took me to a butterfly exhibit at a museum. Diana and I have been close ever since she was young. Our mothers are twin sisters, and she is inseparable! Diana knows how much I love butterflies, so it was their special present to me. I have a soft spot for caterpillars too. I love them because something about the way it transforms is so interesting to me. One summer my grandmother gave me a butterfly growing kit, and you got to see the entire life cycle of five Painted Lady butterflies. I even got to set it free. So when my cousin said they wanted to take me to the butterfly exhibit, I was really excited!

    Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement

    Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person or thing and are usually singular. Note that a pronoun that refers to an indefinite singular pronoun should also be singular. The following are some common indefinite pronouns.

    Figure 8.15 “Common Indefinite Pronouns”

    Common Indefinite Pronouns

    all

    each one

    few

    nothing

    several

    any

    each other

    many

    one

    some

    anybody

    either

    neither

    one another

    somebody

    anything

    everybody

    nobody

    oneself

    someone

    both

    everyone

    none

    other

    something

    each

    everything

    no one

    others

    anyone

    Indefinite pronoun agreement

    Incorrect:Everyone(sing.) should do whatthey(plur.) can to help.

    Correct:Everyone(sing.) should do whathe or she(sing.) can to help.

    Incorrect:Someone(sing.) lefttheir(plur.) backpack in the library.

    Correct:Someone(sing.) lefthis or her(sing.) backpack in the library.

    Collective Nouns

    Collective nouns suggest more than one person but are usually considered singular. Look over the following examples of collective nouns.

    Figure 8.16 “Common Collective Nouns”

    Common Collective Nouns

    audience

    faculty

    public

    band

    family

    school

    class

    government

    society

    committee

    group

    team

    company

    jury

    tribe

    Collective noun agreement

    Incorrect: Lara’scompany(sing.) will havetheir(plur.) annual picnic next week.

    Correct: Lara’scompany(sing.) will haveits(sing.) annual picnic next week.

    Exercise 18

    Complete the following sentences by selecting the correct pronoun. Copy the completed sentence onto your own sheet of paper. Then circle the noun the pronoun replaces.

    1. In the current economy, nobody wants to waste ________ money on frivolous things.

    2. If anybody chooses to go to medical school, ________ must be prepared to work long hours.

    3. The plumbing crew did ________ best to repair the broken pipes before the next ice storm.

    4. If someone is rude to you, try giving ________ a smile in return.

    5. My family has ________ faults, but I still love them no matter what.

    6. The school of education plans to train ________ students to be literacy tutors.

    7. The commencement speaker said that each student has a responsibility toward ________.

    8. My mother’s singing group has ________ rehearsals on Thursday evenings.

    9. No one should suffer ________ pains alone.

    10. I thought the flock of birds lost ________ way in the storm.

    Subject and Object Pronouns

    Subject pronouns function as subjects in a sentence. Object pronouns function as the object of a verb or of a preposition.

    Figure 8.17 “Singular and Plural Pronouns”

    Singular Pronouns

    Plural Pronouns

    Subject

    Object

    Subject

    Object

    I

    me

    we

    us

    you

    you

    you

    you

    he, she, it

    him, her, it

    they

    them

    The following sentences show pronouns as subjects:

    Sheloves the Blue Ridge Mountains in the fall.

    Every summer,theypicked up litter from national parks.

    The following sentences show pronouns as objects:

    Marie leaned over and kissedhim.

    Jane moveditto the corner.

    Tip

    Note that a pronoun can also be the object of a preposition.

    Nearthem, the children played.

    My mother stood betweenus.

    The pronounsusandthemare objects of the prepositionsnearandbetween. They answer the questionsnearwhom? Andbetweenwhom?

    Compound subject pronouns are two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or a preposition that function as the subject of the sentence.

    The following sentences show pronouns with compound subjects:

    Incorrect:Me and Harrietvisited the Grand Canyon last summer.

    Correct:Harriet and Ivisited the Grand Canyon last summer.

    Correct: Jenna accompaniedHarriet and meon our trip.

    Tip

    Note that object pronouns are never used in the subject position. One way to remember this rule is to remove the other subject in a compound subject, leave only the pronoun, and see whether the sentence makes sense.

    For example,Me visited the Grand Canyon last summersounds immediately incorrect.

    Compound object pronouns are two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or a preposition that function as the object of the sentence.

    Incorrect: I have a good feeling aboutJanice and I.

    Correct: I have a good feeling aboutJanice and me.

    Tip

    It is correct to writeJanice and me, as opposed tome and Janice. Just remember it is more polite to refer to yourself last.

    Writing at Work

    In casual conversation, people sometimes mix up subject and object pronouns. For instance, you might say, “Me and Donnie went to a movie last night.” However, when you are writing or speaking at work or in any other formal situation, you need to remember the distinctions between subject and object pronouns and be able to correct yourself. These subtle grammar corrections will enhance your professional image and reputation.

    Exercise 19

    Revise the following sentences in which the subject and object pronouns are used incorrectly. Copy the revised sentence onto your own sheet of paper. Write a C for each sentence that is correct.

    1. Meera and me enjoy doing yoga together on Sundays.

    2. She and him have decided to sell their house.

    3. Between you and I, I do not think Jeffrey will win the election.

    4. Us and our friends have game night the first Thursday of every month.

    5. They and I met while on vacation in Mexico.

    6. Napping on the beach never gets boring for Alice and I.

    7. New Year’s Eve is not a good time for she and I to have a serious talk.

    8. You exercise much more often than me.

    9. I am going to the comedy club with Yolanda and she.

    10. The cooking instructor taught her and me a lot.

    WhoversusWhom

    Whoorwhoeveris always the subject of a verb. Usewhoorwhoeverwhen the pronoun performs the action indicated by the verb.

    Whowon the marathon last Tuesday?

    I wonderwhocame up with that terrible idea!

    On the other hand,whomandwhomeverserve as objects. They are used when the pronoun doesnotperform an action. Usewhomorwhomeverwhen the pronoun is the direct object of a verb or the object of a preposition.

    Whomdid Frank marry the third time? (direct object of verb)

    Fromwhomdid you buy that old record player? (object of preposition)

    Tip

    If you are having trouble deciding when to usewhoandwhom, try this trick. Take the following sentence:

    Who/Whomdo I consider my best friend?

    Reorder the sentence in your head, using eitherheorhimin place ofwhoorwhom.

    I considerhimmy best friend.

    I considerhemy best friend.

    Which sentence sounds better? The first one, of course. So the trick is, if you can usehim, you should usewhom.

    Exercise 20

    Complete the following sentences by addingwhoorwhom. Copy the completed sentence onto your own sheet of paper.

    1. ________ hit the home run?

    2. I remember ________ won the Academy Award for Best Actor last year.

    3. To ________ is the letter addressed?

    4. I have no idea ________ left the iron on, but I am going to find out.

    5. ________ are you going to recommend for the internship?

    6. With ________ are you going to Hawaii?

    7. No one knew ________ the famous actor was.

    8. ________ in the office knows how to fix the copy machine?

    9. From ________ did you get the concert tickets?

    10. No one knew_______ ate the cake mom was saving.

    Key Takeaways

    Pronouns and their antecedents need to agree in number and person.

    Most indefinite pronouns are singular.

    Collective nouns are usually singular.

    Pronouns can function as subjects or objects.

    Subject pronouns are never used as objects, and object pronouns are never used as subjects.

    Whoserves as a subject of a verb.

    Whomserves as an object of a sentence or the object of a preposition.

    Writing Application

    Write about what makes an ideal marriage or long-term relationship. Provide specific details to back your assertions. After you have written a few paragraphs, go back and proofread your paper for correct pronoun usage.

    6.ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

    Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words that bring your writing to life.

    Adjectives and Adverbs

    An adjective is a word that describes a noun or a pronoun. It often answers questions such aswhich one,what kind, orhow many?

    1. Thegreensweater belongs to Iris.

    2. She looksbeautiful.

    In sentence 1, the adjectivegreendescribes the nounsweater.

    In sentence 2, the adjectivebeautifuldescribes the pronounshe.

    An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs frequently end inly. They answer questions such ashow,to what extent,why,when, andwhere.

    3. Bertrand singshorribly.

    4. My sociology instructor isextremelywise.

    5. He threw the ballveryaccurately.

    In sentence 3,horriblydescribes the verbsings. How does Bertrand sing? He singshorribly.

    In sentence 4,extremelydescribes the adjectivewise. Howwiseis the instructor?Extremelywise.

    In sentence 5,verydescribes the adverbaccurately. Howaccuratelydid he throw the ball?Veryaccurately.

    Exercise 21

    Complete the following sentences by adding the correct adjective or adverb from the list in the previous section. Identify the word as an adjective or an adverb (Adj, Adv).

    1. Frederick ________ choked on the piece of chicken when he saw Margaret walk through the door.

    2. His ________ eyes looked at everyone and everything as if they were specimens in a biology lab.

    3. Despite her pessimistic views on life, Lauren believes that most people have ________ hearts.

    4. Although Stefan took the criticism ________, he remained calm.

    5. The child developed a ________ imagination because he read a lot of books.

    6. Madeleine spoke ________ while she was visiting her grandmother in the hospital.

    7. Hector’s most ________ possession was his father’s bass guitar from the 1970s.

    8. My definition of a ________ afternoon is walking to the park on a beautiful day, spreading out my blanket, and losing myself in a good book.

    9. She ________ eyed her new coworker and wondered if he was single.

    10. At the party, Denise ________ devoured two pieces of pepperoni pizza and a several slices of ripe watermelon.

    Comparative versus Superlative

    Comparative adjectives and adverbs are used to compare two people or things.

    1. Jorge isthin.

    2. Steven isthinnerthan Jorge.

    Sentence 1 describes Jorge with the adjectivethin.

    Sentence 2 compares Jorge to Steven, stating that Steven isthinner. Sothinneris the comparative form ofthin.

    Form comparatives in one of the following two ways:

    If the adjective or adverb is a one syllable word, adderto it to form the comparative. For example,big,fast, andshortwould becomebigger,faster, andshorterin the comparative form.

    If the adjective or adverb is a word of two or more syllables, place the wordmorein front of it to form the comparative. For example,happily,comfortable, andjealouswould becomemore happily,more comfortable, andmore jealousin the comparative.

    Superlative adjectives and adverbs are used to compare more than two people or two things.

    1. Jackie is theloudestcheerleader on the squad.

    2. Kenyatta was voted themost confidentstudent by her graduating class.

    Sentence 1 shows that Jackie is not justlouderthan one other person, but she is theloudestof all the cheerleaders on the squad.

    Sentence 2 shows that Kenyatta was voted themost confidentstudent of all the students in her class.

    Form superlatives in one of the following two ways:

    If the adjective or adverb is a one-syllable word, addestto form the superlative. For example,big,fast, andshortwould becomebiggest,fastest, andshortestin the superlative form.

    If the adjective or adverb is a word of two or more syllables, place the wordmostin front of it. For example,happily,comfortable, andjealouswould becomemost happily,most comfortable, andmost jealousin the superlative form.

    Tip

    Remember the following exception: If the word has two syllables and ends in-y, change the-yto an-iand add-est. For example,happywould change tohappiestin the superlative form;healthywould change tohealthiest.

    Exercise 22

    Edit the following paragraph by correcting the errors in comparative and superlative adjectives.

    Our argument started on the most sunny afternoon that I have ever experienced. Max and I were sitting on my front stoop when I started it. I told him that my dog, Jacko, was more smart than his dog, Merlin. I could not help myself. Merlin never came when he was called, and he chased his tail and barked at rocks. I told Max that Merlin was the most dumbest dog on the block. I guess I was angrier about a bad grade that I received, so I decided to pick on poor little Merlin. Even though Max insulted Jacko too, I felt I had been more mean. The next day I apologized to Max and brought Merlin some of Jacko’s treats. When Merlin placed his paw on my knee and licked my hand, I was the most sorry person on the block.

    Collaboration

    Share and compare your answers with a classmate.

    Irregular Words:Good,Well,Bad, andBadly

    Good,well,bad, andbadlyare often used incorrectly. Study the following chart to learn the correct usage of these words and their comparative and superlative forms.

    Figure 8.18 “Irregular Words”

    Comparative

    Superlative

    Adjective

    good

    better

    best

    Adverb

    well

    better

    best

    Adjective

    bad

    worse

    worst

    Adverb

    badly

    worse

    worst

    GoodversusWell

    Goodis always an adjective—that is, a word that describes a noun or a pronoun. The second sentence is correct becausewellis an adverb that tells how something is done.

    Incorrect: Cecilia felt that she had never done sogoodon a test.

    Correct: Cecilia felt that she had never done sowellon a test.

    Wellis always an adverb that describes a verb, adverb, or adjective. The second sentence is correct becausegoodis an adjective that describes the nounscore.

    Incorrect: Cecilia’s team received awellscore.

    Correct: Cecilia’s team received agoodscore.

    BadversusBadly

    Badis always an adjective. The second sentence is correct becausebadlyis an adverb that tells how the speaker did on the test.

    Incorrect: I didbadon my accounting test because I didn’t study.

    Correct: I didbadlyon my accounting test because I didn’t study.

    Badlyis always an adverb. The second sentence is correct becausebadis an adjective that describes the nounthunderstorm.

    Incorrect: The coming thunderstorm lookedbadly.

    Correct: The coming thunderstorm lookedbad.

    BetterandWorse

    The following are examples of the use ofbetterandworse:

    Tyra likes sprintingbetterthan long distance running.

    The traffic isworsein Chicago than in Atlanta.

    BestandWorst

    The following are examples of the use ofbestandworst:

    Tyra sprintsbestof all the other competitors.

    Peter finishedworstof all the runners in the race.

    Tip

    Rememberbetterandworsecompare two persons or things.Bestandworstcompare three or more persons or things.

    Exercise 23

    Writegood,well,bad, orbadlyto complete each sentence. Copy the completed sentence onto your own sheet of paper.

    1. Donna always felt ________ if she did not see the sun in the morning.

    2. The school board president gave a ________ speech for once.

    3. Although my dog, Comet, is mischievous, he always behaves ________ at the dog park.

    4. I thought my back injury was ________ at first, but it turned out to be minor.

    5. Steve was shaking ________ from the extreme cold.

    6. Apple crisp is a very ________ dessert that can be made using whole grains instead of white flour.

    7. The meeting with my son’s math teacher went very ________.

    8. Juan has a ________ appetite, especially when it comes to dessert.

    9. Magritte thought the guests had a ________ time at the party because most people left early.

    10. She ________ wanted to win the writing contest prize, which included a trip to New York.

    Exercise 24

    Write the correct comparative or superlative form of the word in parentheses. Copy the completed sentence onto your own sheet of paper.

    1. This research paper is ________ (good) than my last one.

    2. Tanaya likes country music ________ (well) of all.

    3. My motorcycle rides ________ (bad) than it did last summer.

    4. That is the ________ (bad) joke my father ever told.

    5. The hockey team played ________ (badly) than it did last season.

    6. Tracey plays guitar ________ (well) than she plays the piano.

    7. It will go down as one of the ________ (bad) movies I have ever seen.

    8. The deforestation in the Amazon is ________ (bad) than it was last year.

    9. Movie ticket sales are ________ (good) this year than last.

    10. My husband says mystery novels are the ________ (good) types of books.

    Writing at Work

    The irregular wordsgood,well,bad, andbadlyare often misused along with their comparative and superlative formsbetter,best,worse, andworst. You may not hear the difference betweenworseandworst, and therefore type it incorrectly. In a formal or business-like tone, use each of these words to write eight separate sentences. Assume these sentences will be seen and judged by your current or future employer.

    Key Takeaways

    Adjectives describe a noun or a pronoun.

    Adverbs describe a verb, adjective, or another adverb.

    Most adverbs are formed by addinglyto an adjective.

    Comparative adjectives and adverbs compare two persons or things.

    Superlative adjectives or adverbs compare more than two persons or things.

    The adjectivesgoodandbadand the adverbswellandbadlyare unique in their comparative and superlative forms and require special attention.

    Writing Application

    Using the exercises as a guide, write your own ten-sentence quiz for your classmate(s) using the concepts covered in this section. Try to include two questions from each subsection in your quiz. Exchange papers and see whether you can get a perfect score.

    7.MISPLACED AND DANGLING MODIFIERS

    A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that clarifies or describes another word, phrase, or clause. Sometimes writers use modifiers incorrectly, leading to strange and unintentionally humorous sentences. The two common types of modifier errors are called misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers. If either of these errors occurs, readers can no longer read smoothly. Instead, they become stumped trying to figure outwhatthe writer meant to say. A writer’s goal must always be to communicate clearly and to avoid distracting the reader with strange sentences or awkward sentence constructions. The good news is that these errors can be easily overcome.

    Misplaced Modifiers

    A misplaced modifier is a modifier that is placed too far from the word or words it modifies. Misplaced modifiers make the sentence awkward and sometimes unintentionally humorous.

    Incorrect: She wore a bicycle helmet on her headthat was too large.

    Correct: She wore a bicycle helmetthat was too largeon her head.

    Notice in the incorrect sentence it sounds as if her head were too large! Of course, the writer is referring to the helmet, not to the person’s head. The corrected version of the sentence clarifies the writer’s meaning.

    Look at the following two examples:

    Incorrect: They bought a kitten for my brotherthey call Shadow.

    Correct: They bought a kittenthey call Shadowfor my brother.

    In the incorrect sentence, it seems that the brother’s name isShadow. That’s because the modifier is too far from the word it modifies, which iskitten.

    Incorrect: The patient was referred to the physicianwith stomach pains.

    Correct: The patientwith stomach painswas referred to the physician.

    The incorrect sentence reads as if it were the physician who has stomach pains! What the writer means is that the patient has stomach pains.

    Tip

    Simple modifiers likeonly,almost,just,nearly, andbarelyoften get used incorrectly because writers often stick them in the wrong place.

    Confusing: Tyleralmostfound fifty cents under the sofa cushions.

    Revised: Tyler foundalmostfifty cents under the sofa cushions.

    How do youalmostfind something? Either you find it or you do not. The revisedsentence is much clearer.

    Exercise 25

    On a separate sheet of paper, rewrite the following sentences to correct the misplaced modifiers.

    1. The young lady was walking the dog on the telephone.

    2. I heard that there was a robbery on the evening news.

    3. Uncle Louie bought a running stroller for the baby that he called “Speed Racer.”

    4. Rolling down the mountain, the explorer stopped the boulder with his powerful foot.

    5. We are looking for a babysitter for our precious six-year-old who doesn’t drink or smoke and owns a car.

    6. The teacher served cookies to the children wrapped in aluminum foil.

    7. The mysterious woman walked toward the car holding an umbrella.

    8. We returned the wine to the waiter that was sour.

    9. Charlie spotted a stray puppy driving home from work.

    10. I ate nothing but a cold bowl of noodles for dinner.

    Dangling Modifiers

    A dangling modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that describes something that has been left out of the sentence. When there is nothing that the word, phrase, or clause can modify, the modifier is said to dangle.

    Incorrect:Riding in the sports car, the world whizzed by rapidly.

    Correct: As Jane wasriding in the sports car, the world whizzed by rapidly.

    In the incorrect sentence,riding in the sports caris dangling. The reader is left wondering who is riding in the sports car. The writer must tell the reader!

    Incorrect:Walking home at night, the trees looked like spooky aliens.

    Correct: As Jonas waswalking home at night, the trees looked like spooky aliens.

    Correct: The trees looked like spooky aliens as Jonas waswalking home at night.

    In the incorrect sentencewalking home at nightis dangling. Who is walking home at night? Jonas. Note that there are two different ways the dangling modifier can be corrected.

    Incorrect: To win the spelling bee, Luis and Gerard should join our team.

    Correct: If we want to win the spelling bee this year, Luis and Gerard should join our team.

    In the incorrect sentence,to win the spelling beeis dangling. Who wants to win the spelling bee? We do!

    Tip

    The following three steps will help you quickly spot a dangling modifier:

    Look for aningmodifier at the beginning of your sentence or another modifying phrase:

    Painting for three hours at night,the kitchen was finally finished by Maggie. (Paintingis theingmodifier.)

    Underline the first noun that follows it:

    Painting for three hours at night,the kitchen was finally finished by Maggie.

    Make sure the modifier and noun go together logically. If they do not, it is very likely you have a dangling modifier.

    After identifying the dangling modifier, rewrite the sentence.

    Painting for three hours at night, Maggiefinally finished the kitchen.

    Exercise 26

    Rewrite the following the sentences onto your own sheet of paper to correct the dangling modifiers.

    1. Bent over backward, the posture was very challenging.

    2. Making discoveries about new creatures, this is an interesting time to be a biologist.

    3. Walking in the dark, the picture fell off the wall.

    4. Playing a guitar in the bedroom, the cat was seen under the bed.

    5. Packing for a trip, a cockroach scurried down the hallway.

    6. While looking in the mirror, the towel swayed in the breeze.

    7. While driving to the veterinarian’s office, the dog nervously whined.

    8. The priceless painting drew large crowds when walking into the museum.

    9. Piled up next to the bookshelf, I chose a romance novel.

    10. Chewing furiously, the gum fell out of my mouth.

    Exercise 27

    Rewrite the following paragraph correcting all the misplaced and dangling modifiers.

    I bought a fresh loaf of bread for my sandwich shopping in the grocery store. Wanting to make a delicious sandwich, the mayonnaise was thickly spread. Placing the cold cuts on the bread, the lettuce was placed on top. I cut the sandwich in half with a knife turning on the radio. Biting into the sandwich, my favorite song blared loudly in my ears. Humming and chewing, my sandwich went down smoothly. Smiling, my sandwich will be made again, but next time I will add cheese.

    Collaboration

    Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

    Key Takeaways

    Misplaced and dangling modifiers make sentences difficult to understand.

    Misplaced and dangling modifiers distract the reader.

    There are several effective ways to identify and correct misplaced and dangling modifiers.

    Writing Application

    See how creative and humorous you can get by writing ten sentences with misplaced and dangling modifiers. This is a deceptively simple task, but rise to the challenge. Your writing will be stronger for it. Exchange papers with a classmate, and rewrite your classmate’s sentences to correct any misplaced modifiers.

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