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Humanities LibreTexts

13: Correcting Grammar and Punctuation (Draft)

  • Page ID
    • 13.1: Why Spend Time on "Correct" Standard English?
    • 13.2: Proofreading Strategies
    • 13.3: Subject-Verb Agreement
      The subject of a sentence and the verb of a sentence must either both be plural or both be singular.
    • 13.4: Fragments
      Revise a sentence fragment to convey a complete thought.
    • 13.5: Run-on Sentences
      A sentence with more than one complete thought needs to connect those thoughts using appropriate punctuation and/or a connecting word.
    • 13.6 Verb Tense
    • 13.7: Pronoun Agreement
      Pronouns need to agree in person, number, and case with the word they refer to.
    • 13.8: Word Choice
    • 13.9: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
      A phrase intended to modify or describe something needs to be placed right next to the word it modifies.
    • 13.10: Parallelism
      Faulty parallelism occurs when elements of a sentence are not balanced, causing the sentence to sound awkward.
    • 13.11: Commas
      A comma indicates a pause in a sentence or a separation of things in a list.
    • 13.12: Semicolons and Colons
      Semicolons and colons both indicate a break in the flow of a sentence. Each has its particular uses.
    • 13.13: Additional Resources on Grammar and Mechanics
    • Apostrophes
      An apostrophe (’) is a punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction.
    • Capitalization
      Text messages, casual e-mails, and instant messages often ignore the rules of capitalization. In fact, it can seem unnecessary to capitalize in these contexts. In other, more formal forms of communication, however, knowing the basic rules of capitalization and using capitalization correctly gives the reader the impression that you choose your words carefully and care about the ideas you are conveying.
    • Count and Noncount Nouns and Articles
      Nouns are words that name things, places, people, and ideas. Right now, you may be surrounded by desks, computers, and notebooks. These are called count nouns because you can count the exact number of desks, computers, and notebooks—three desks, one computer, and six notebooks, for example.
    • Dashes
      A dash (—) is a punctuation mark used to set off information in a sentence for emphasis.
    • Hyphens
      A hyphen (-) looks similar to a dash but is shorter and used in different ways.
    • Parentheses
      Parentheses ( ) are punctuation marks that are always used in pairs and contain material that is secondary to the meaning of a sentence. Parentheses must never contain the subject or verb of a sentence. A sentence should make sense if you delete any text within parentheses and the parentheses.
    • Prepositions
      A preposition is a word that connects a noun or a pronoun to another word in a sentence. Most prepositions such as above, below, and behind usually indicate a location in the physical world, but some prepositions such as during, after, and until show location in time.
    • Quotes
      Quotation marks (“ ”) set off a group of words from the rest of the text. Use quotation marks to indicate direct quotations of another person’s words or to indicate a title. Quotation marks always appear in pairs.
    • Sentence Variety


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