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    We have observed in this chapter that art is like a mirror reflecting, communicating, and interpreting self, individuals, and society. Throughout history from primitive to modern, humans have been able to express a variety of ideas and feelings and even to evoke responses from neighbors through artistic markings and with the creation of structures. Those artistic expressions have been a major source in understanding each other and the world we live in. It has communicated in many different ways and styles the practical and abstraction, the cultural and the aesthetics of a people. As we have previously noted, Immanuel Kant characterized beauty or aesthetics and the practicality of it as a systematic way in understanding the range of the arts. We have noted that art can be an instrumental discipline, a powerful social or political force by which society interprets, controls, modifies, or adapts to their environment or to their personal taste and/or beliefs. Examples include the political and social statements of Jaune Quick—To—See Smith’s “the Quincentenary Non-Celebration” or Jona Cerwinske’s graffiti and murals, or the romantic and sacred aesthetic styles of Albert Bierstadt and Maurice Denis; the genre representation of cultural identity in the Ashante Kente cloth and the hyperrealist works of sculptor Ron Mueck; and in earlier years, a holy site like the Islamic structure The Dome of the Rock that is identified and recognized as a holy place by several diverse religious groups: Muslims, Jews and Catholics, thus representing several diverse groups all of which communicate powerful artistic messages. Each and all bring people together with like beliefs or views through an artistic structure of communicating: creativity (a substance of inventive, original , imaginative ideas); disposition (the character, temperament, formal structure qualities, and sequence); and style (communicating and delivering specific resources and physical attributes that send off a reaction).

    Test Yourself

    1. How did the development of photography impact social consciousness and awareness in the arts; cite examples. Discuss and show change and influence.
    2. Historically, markings have been a means of delivering a religious message to different cultures. Identify and discuss at least three different early written religious art forms used to communicate a message. Explain the message and how it is influenced by the artist style in written form or imagery.
    3. How have people used art to commemorate events in their lives throughout history? Show examples of images and elaborate on artist style and presentation of depicting the event.


    aesthetics: the study of principles and appreciation of beauty.

    Ara Pacis: an enclosed altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.

    artifacts: a tool, weapon, or ornament created by humans that usually has historical significance.

    avant-garde: works of art that are innovative, experimental, different from the norm or on the cutting edge.

    avatar: physical form of the Hindu god Vishnu.

    Bhudevi: a Hindu earth goddess and the divine wife of Varaha, an Avatar of Vishnu.

    central-plan churches: are symbolic to reference the cross of Christ. Its round, cruciform, or polygonal design was popular in the West and East after the fourth century.

    gui: a ritual scepter, held by a ruler during ceremonies as a symbol of rank and power.

    hieroglyphs: abstracted pictures that represent words or sounds.

    Kente cloth: woven silk and cotton wrap worn by Ashante kings during special ceremonies.

    klismos chair: a curved-leg chair style popular in Ancient Greece.

    les Nabis: a movement of Post –impressionist graphic and fine artists in France during the 1890s.

    Neolithic period: known also as the Stone Age, is the last stage of prehistoric human cultural evolution. It is a period known for its polished stone tools, spread of architecture, megalithic architecture, and domestication of animals.

    Palace of Knossos: the first Minoan monument located in Knossos. It was the residence of King Minos’s dynasty, where he ruled.

    Shandong Longshan Culture: Central China’s Neolithic culture named after Longshan, Shandong Province. The culture is known for its production of black pottery.

    Stele: grave marker.

    Varaha: a Hindu god in the form of a boar during the Satya Yuga.

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