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11.1: Overview

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    32166
  • The 19th century was a time of transformation around the world and revolutionized the concepts and principles of art as part of the broad sweeping changes in the art world. Instead of lasting several decades or centuries, art movements changed every 10-20 years as artists experimented with technology and innovative ideas. The industrial revolution brought prosperity, an emerging middle class, and people with time on their hands to enjoy life. Transportation gave the general population and artists the ability to travel to other countries, exposure to other cultures, to study and learn new art methods. Art around the world changed and became incorporated into everyday life, no longer controlled by royalty, government, or religion.

    During this period, experiments with multiple art styles occurred as new technologies changed traditional art. The invention of tubes to hold paint allowed artists to paint outside, en Plein Aire, capturing the view before them directly on the canvas instead of making sketches and finishing the painting in their studio. Both the Impressionists and the Hudson River School artists now used the natural light of nature. Georges Seurat developed the style called pointillism, applying small dots of adjacent complementary colors on the canvas to form the image. The camera was invented in this period creating the ability to record an image, an invention profoundly changing art, and bringing the technology to all people.

    The changes likewise brought new opportunities for female artists to be recognized and accepted. One of the significant turning points for women happened with the emergence of the Les Trios Grandes Dames of Impressionism in France, paving the way for other women artists to follow in future generations. The Grand Dames exhibited their work in the prominent Salons and competed alongside some of the finest male artists of the period. Women in the United States exhibited art in support of their women's suffragette movement, although in cities like Philadelphia, society boycotted the show. Art from Japan influenced European artists as they developed the new Japonism style when access to other cultures broadened the artistic environment.

    Chapter 11, The Industrial Revolution (1800 CE–1899 CE) altered the concepts of art with new inventions and techniques. These changes reflected worldwide as artists in every country experimented and influenced the art methods in their regions.

    Movement

    Time Frame

    Starting Location

    Romanticism

    1780 - 1850

    Europe

    Realism

    1848 - 1870

    France

    Hudson River School

    1850s - 1880

    United States

    Shanghai School of Art

    Late 19th Century

    China

    Edo Period

    1615 - 1868

    Japan

    Impressionism

    1860 - 1890

    France

    Post-Impressionism

    1885 – 1905

    France

    Art Nouveau

    1890 – 1914

    France

    Photography

    Since 1826

    France

    The artists in this time continually changed their styles, learning from previous movements, and using the new technology and methods brought by the industrial changes in the world.

    Artist

    Approx.

    Birth

    Movement

    Theodore Gericault

    1791

    Romanticism

    Francisco Goya

    1746

    Romanticism

    Eugene Delacroix

    1798

    Romanticism

    Gustave Courbet

    1819

    Realism

    Thomas Eakins

    1844

    Realism

    Rosa Bonheur

    1822

    Realism

    Winslow Homer

    1836

    Realism

    Edward Manet

    1832

    Realism

    Thomas Cole

    1801

    Hudson River School

    Albert Bierstadt

    1830

    Hudson River School

    Fredrick Church

    1826

    Hudson River School

    Julie Hart Beers

    1835

    Hudson River School

    Harriet Cary Peale

    1799

    Hudson River School

    Robert Seldon Duncanson

    1821

    Hudson River School

    Wu Changshuo

    1844

    Shanghai School of Art

    Zhao Zhuiqin

    1829

    Shanghai School of Art

    Ren Bonian

    1840

    Shanghai School of Art

    Torii Kiyonaga

    1752

    Edo Period

    Katsushika Hokusai

    1760

    Edo Period

    Utagawa Hiroshige

    1797

    Edo Period

    Claude Monet

    1840

    Impressionism

    Pierre Renoir

    1841

    Impressionism

    Alfred Sisley

    1839

    Impressionism

    Camille Pissarro

    1830

    Impressionism

    Mary Cassatt

    1844

    Les Trois Grandes Dames Impressionism

    Berthe Morisot

    1841

    Les Trois Grandes Dames Impressionism

    Marie Bracquemond

    1840

    Les Trois Grandes Dames Impressionism

    Vincent Van Gogh

    1853

    Post-Impressionism

    Paul Gauguin

    1848

    Post-Impressionism

    Paul Cezanne

    1839

    Post-Impressionism

    Henri Toulouse Lautrec

    1864

    Post-Impressionism

    Georges Seurat

    1859

    Post-Impressionism

    Edgar Degas

    1834

    Post-Impressionism

    Walter Crane

    1845

    Art Nouveau

    William Morris

    1834

    Art Nouveau

    Alfonse Mucha

    1860

    Art Nouveau

    Louis Daguerre

    1787

    Photography

    Eadweard Muybridge

    1830

    Photography

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