Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

4.12: Conclusion and Contrast

  • Page ID
    32222
  • For the ornate marble and stone buildings, elaborate sculpture, bronze tools, and weapons, the trade routes over land and sea grew, and control of a specialized material added economic advantage. The Phoenicians controlled the production of the color purple, while the pure white marble was quarried from mountains in the Aegean. Artisans incorporated the different materials and areas within a culture became known for a uniquely designed vessel or innovative shape of a weapon, or new methods to stack stones in ever-larger buildings. During this period, the language developed into symbols allowing information to be recorded. Linguistic symbols were incorporated into the artwork, identifying a ruler, incising a saying, or painting a story.

    Contrasting the Buildings of Early Civilizations

    Civilization

    Building

    Construction Material

    Decorations

    Middle/New/Late

    Kingdom Egyptian Dynasties

    Temple of Karnak and the

    Valley of the Kings

    Stone blocks, stacked sandstone, cut into hillsides

    Carved scenes, painted, low relief carvings

    Aegean

    Palace of Knossos

    Stone floor, stacked stone support, wood frame, plastered

    Elaborate frescos

    Red columns

    Elaborate throne room

    Assyrian

    Temple of Ashur

    Mud brick on quarried stone foundation

    Low relief carvings

    Babylonian

    Etemenanki Tower

    Unknown

    Unknown

    Persians

    Persepolis

    Limestone blocks, mud brick, wooden lintels

    Low relief carvings, statues, elaborate stairways, stone columns

    Phoenicians

    Amrit and Olympic Stadium

    Carved from bedrock, stacked stone

    Carvings

    Etruscans

    Tarquina and Cerveteri

    Cemetery

    Cut rock in hillsides and stacked stone

    Painted with frescos

    Shang and Zhou Dynasties

    Shaobei Dam

    Earth

    Packed earth, blocks

    Late Jomon Period

    Sannai-Maruyama

    Wood beams, posts, supports, thatched roofs

    None known

    Chavin

    Chavin de Huantar

    Stone blocks

    Low relief carvings

    Olmec

    La Venta

    Stone blocks

    Carved sculptures

    Early Pre-Classic Mayan

    La Blanca

    Stone blocks

    Carved sculptures

    1. Select three cultures and define how they moved the raw materials for the structure.

    2. How did the cultures in the Western Hemisphere carve into the hard stone?

    3. What is the Hypostyle Hall and how was it constructed?

    4. How did the Etruscans paint the frescos?

    • Was this article helpful?